- Patent For Microwave Voice-To-Skull Technology
- United States Patent 4,877,027 Brunkan October 31, 1989
- Hearing System
- Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating
the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz
that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of
frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly
spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The burst width is between 500
nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10
nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the
audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head
- Inventors: Brunkan; Wayne B. (P.O. Box 2411, Goleta,
CA 93118) Appl. No.: 202679 Filed: June 6, 1988
- Current U.S. Class: 607/56 Intern'l Class: A61N 005/00
Field of Search: 128/420.5,804,419 R,421,422,746 381/68
- References Cited <http://126.96.36.199/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=
- [Referenced By]
- U.S. Patent Documents
- PN%2F3629521>3629521 Dec., 1971 Puharich et al. 128/402.
- Query=PN%2F3766331>3766331 Oct., 1973 Zink 128/420.
- Other References
- Cain et al, "Mammalian Auditory Responses . . .
", IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, pp. 288-293, 1978.
- Frey et al, "Human Perception . . . Energy"
Science, 181,356-358, 1973.
- Jaski, "Radio Waves & Life", Radio-Electronics,
pp. 45-45, Sep. 1960.
- Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Lin, 1978,
- Primary Examiner: Cohen; Lee S.
- Attorney, Agent or Firm: Brelsford; Harry W.
- I claim:
- 1. Apparatus for creating human hearing comprising:
- (a) an audio source for creating electrical audio waves
having positive peaks;
- (b) a frequency modulator generator connected to the
audio source to create frequency modulated bursts;
- (c) a source of constant voltage to create a voltage
standard that is in the range of 25% to 85% of the peak voltage of the
- (d) a comparator connected to the voltage source and
the audio source to compare the instantaneous voltage of the waves from
the audio source with the voltage standard;
- (e) a connection of the comparator to the frequency modulator
generator to activate the frequency modulator generator when the instantaneous
voltage of the audio wave exceeds the standard voltage;
- (f) a microwave generator creating microwaves in the
range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz and connected to the frequency
modulator generator, generating microwaves only when pulsed by the frequency
modulator generator; and
- (g) an antenna connected to the microwave generator to
radiate the head of a human being to produce the sounds of the audio source.
- 2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the frequency
generating range of the frequency modulator generator is 1 Khz to 100 KHz
for bursts and 100 KHz to 20 MHZ for pulses within a burst.
- 3. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the frequency
generating range of the frequency modulator generator is one Khz to 100
KHz for bursts and 100 KHz to 20 MHZ for pulses within a burst and the
duration of each pulse of the frequency modulator generator is in the range
of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond.
- 4. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the voltage
standard is approximately 50% of the peak of the audio waves.
- 5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the antenna
is of the type that projects the microwaves in space to the head of a person.
- 6. Apparatus for creating human hearing comprising:
- (a) an oscillator creating an electromagnetic carrier
wave at a selected frequency in the range of 100 Mhz to 10,000 Mhz;
- (b) a pulse generator connected to said oscillator to
pulse the carrier with pulses having a width in the range of 10 nanoseconds
to 1 microsecond with a minimum spacing between pulses of about 25 nanoseconds;
- (c) a frequency modulator connected to the pulse generator;
- (d) an audio signal generator connected to the modulator
which modulates the pulses in accordance with the audio signal; and
- (e) a transmitting antenna connected to the oscillator
to transmit the carrier wave as thus modified to project the electromagnetic
energy through space to the head of a person.
- 7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6 wherein the modulator
is a frequency modulator to vary the density of bursts within an audio
envelope as a function of the audio amplitude.
- 8. The method of irradiating a person's head to produce
sound in the head of the person comprising
- (a) irridiating the head of a person with microwaves
in the range of 100 Mhz to 10,000 Mhz;
- (b) pulsing said microwaves with pulses in the range
of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond; and
- (c) frequency modulating groups of pulses called bursts
by audio waves wherein the modulation extends from 1 Khz to 100 Khz.
- This invention relates to a hearing system for human
beings in which high frequency electromagnetic energy is projected through
the air to the head of a human being and the electromagnetic energy is
modulated to create signals that can be discerned by the human being regardless
of the hearing ability of the person.
- THE PRIOR ART
- Various types of apparatus and modes of application have
been proposed and tried to inject intelligible sounds into the heads of
human beings. Some of these have been devised to simulate speech and other
sounds in deaf persons and other systems have been used to inject intelligible
signals in persons of good hearing, but bypassing the normal human hearing
- U.S. Pat. No. 3,629,521 issued Dec. 21, 1971 describes
the use of a pair of electrodes applied to a person's head to inject speech
into the head of a deaf person. An oscillator creates a carrier in the
range of 18 to 36 KHz that is amplitude modulated by a microphone.
- Science magazine volume 181, page 356 describes a hearing
system utilizing a radio frequency carrier of 1.245 GHz delivered through
the air by means of a waveguide and horn antenna. The carrier was pulsed
at the rate of 50 pulses per second. The human test subject reported a
buzzing sound and the intensity varied with the peak power.
- Similar methods of creating "clicks" inside
the human head are reported in I.E.E.E. Transactions of Biomedical Engineering,
volume BME 25, No. 3, May 1978.
- The transmission of intelligible speech by audio modulated
Microwave is described in the book Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications
by James C. Lin 1978 publisher Charles C. Thomas.
- BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
- I have discovered that a pulsed signal on a radio frequency
carrier of about 1,000 megahertz (1000 MHz) is effective in creating intelligible
signals inside the head of a person if this electromagnetic (EM) energy
is projected through the air to the head of the person. Intelligible signals
are applied to the carrier by microphone or other audio source and I cause
the bursts to be frequency modulated. The bursts are composed of a group
of pulses. The pulses are carefully selected for peak strength and pulse
width. Various objects, advantages and features of the invention will be
apparent in the specification and claims.
- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
- In the drawings forming an integral part of this specification:
- FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the system of the invention.
- FIG. 2 is a diagram of an audio wave which is the input
to be perceived by the recipient.
- FIG. 3 is a diagram on the same time coordinate as FIG.
2 showing bursts that are frequency modulated by the wave form of FIG.
- FIG. 4 shows, on an enlarged time coordinate, that each
vertical line depicted in FIG. 3 is a burst of pulses. (A burst is a group
- FIG. 5 shows, on a further enlarged time coordinate,
a single continues pulse, Depicted as a vertical line in FIG. 4.
- DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
- Inasmuch as microwaves can damage human tissue, any projected
energy must be carefully regulated to stay within safe limits. The guideline
for 1,000 MHz, set by the American Standards Institute, is 3.3 mw/cm2 (3.3
milliwatts per square centimeter). The apparatus described herein must
be regulated to stay within this upper limit.
- Referring to FIG. 1 a microphone 10 or other generator
of audio frequencies, delivers its output by wire 11 to an FM capable pulse
generator 12 and by branch wire 13 to a comparator 14. The comparator 14
also receives a signal from a voltage standard 16. When the peak voltage
of the audio generator 10 falls below the standard 16 the comparator delivers
a signal by wire 17 to the FM capable pulse generator 12 to shut down the
pulse generator 12. This avoids spurious signals being generated. The output
of the FM pulse generator 12 is delivered by wire 18 to a microwave generator
19 which delivers its output to the head of a human being 23. In this fashion
the person 23 is radiated with microwaves that are in short bursts.
- The microwave generator 19 operates at a steady frequency
presently preferred at 1,000 megahertz (1,000 million). I presently prefer
to pulse the microwave energy at pulse widths of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond.
For any one setting of the FM capable generator 12, this width is fixed.
The pulses are arranged in bursts. The timing between bursts is controlled
by the height of the audio envelope above the voltage standard line. In
addition the bursts are spaced from one another at a non-uniform rate of
1 to 100 KHz. This non-uniform spacing of bursts is created in the FM capable
- Referring to FIG. 2 there is illustrated an audio wave
27 generated by the audio input 10 wherein the horizontal axis is time
and the vertical axis is voltage. For illustrative purposes the wave 27
is shown as having a voltage peak 28 on the left part of FIG. 2 and a voltage
peak 29 of the right side of FIG. 2. The voltage standard 16 of FIG. 1
generates a dc voltage designated at 31 in FIG. 2. This standard voltage
is preferably at about 50% of the peak voltage 28. The comparator 14 of
FIG. 1 actuates the FM capable generator 12 only when the positive envelope
of the audio wave 27 exceeds the voltage standard. The negative portions
of the audio wave are not utilized.
- Referring now to FIG. 3 there is illustrated two groups
of bursts of microwave energy that are delivered by the antenna 22 of FIG.
1 to the head of the person 23. FIG. 3 has a horizontal time axis identical
to the time axis of FIG. 2 and has a vertical axis that in this case represents
the power of the microwaves from generator 19. At the left part of FIG.
3 are a plurality of microwave bursts 32 that occur on the time axis from
the point of intersection of the standard voltage 31 with the positive
part of the audio wave 27, designated as the time point 33 to time point
34 on FIG. 2. It will be noted in FIG. 3 that the bursts 32 are non-uniform
in spacing and that they are closer together at the time of maximum audio
voltage 28 and are more spread out toward the time points 33 and 34. This
is the frequency modulation effected by the FM pulse generator 12.
- Referring to the right part of FIG. 3 there are a plurality
of microwave bursts 36 that are fewer in number and over a shorter time
period than the pulses 32. These extend on the time axis of FIG. 2 from
point 37 to point 38. These bursts 36 are also frequency modulated with
the closest groupings appearing opposite peak 29 of FIG. 2 and greater
spacing near time points 37 and 38.
- Referring now to FIG. 4 there is illustrated the fact
that a single burst shown as straight lines 32 or 36 on FIG. 3 are made
up of ten to twenty separate microwave pulses. The duration of the burst
is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds, with an optimum of 2 microseconds.
The duration of each pulse within the burst is 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond
and a time duration of 100 nanoseconds is preferred. The bursts 32 of FIG.
3 are spaced non-uniformly from each other caused by the frequency modulation
of 12. FIG. 4 depicts a burst. Each vertical line 40 in FIG. 4 represents
a single pulse. Each pulse is represented by the envelope 41 of FIG. 5.
The pulses within a burst are spaced uniformly from eachother. The spacing
between pulses may vary from 5 nanoseconds to 10 microseconds.
- Referring now to FIG. 3, the concentration of bursts
32 opposite the peak 28 of FIG. 2 can be expressed as a frequency of repetition.
I presently prefer to adjust the FM capable generator 12 to have a maximum
frequency of repetition in the range of 25 Khz to 100 Khz. I deliberately
keep this range low to reduce the amount of heating caused by the microwaves.
The wider spacing of the pulses 32 opposite the cutoff points 33 and 34
of FIG. 2 can also be expressed as a frequency of reptition and I presently
prefer a minimum repetition rate of 1 KHz. I find that this low repetition
rate, altnough in the audio range, does not disrupt the transmission of
auoio intelligence to the person 23. The aim, again, is to reduce the amount
of heat transmitted to the subject 23.
- Referring to FIG. 1, the intelligence to be perceived
by the person 23 is introduced at the audio source 10 which may be a microphone
for voice, or a tape player for music, instruction, etc. This audio signal
is transmitted to the FM capable generator 12 and to the comparator 14.
The comparator 14 compares the positive portions of the audio wave with
voltage from the voltage standard 16 and when the audio wave instantaneously
exceeds the standard voltage, the FM generator is actuated by the wire
17 connecting the comparator 14 and the FM generator 12. The FM generator
12 then sends a plurality of signals to the microwave generator 19 at each
peak of the audio wave above the voltage standard.
- This is shown graphically in FIGS. 2-5. The audio signal
27 of FIG. 2 exceeds the standard voltage 31 at point 33 whereupon the
FM generator 12 starts emitting burst signals 32 at its lowest frequency
of about 1 Khz. As time progresses past point 33 the voltage above the
standard increases and the FM generator 12 responds by making the burst
signals closer together until at peak 28 the maximum density of burst signals
32 is achieved, for example at a frequency of 50 Khz. The time duration
of each pulse 40 (FIG. 4) is also controlled by a fixed adjustment of the
FM generator 12 and for example the duration may be 100 nanoseconds.
- The frequency modulated burst signals are delivered by
FM generator 12 to the microwave generator as interrupted dc and the microwave
generator is turned on in response to each pulse 40 and its output is delivered
by coaxial cable 21 to the parabolic antenna 22 to project microwaves onto
the head of a person 23. These microwaves penetrate the brain enough so
that the electrical activity inside of the brain produces the sensation
of sound. When the parameters are adjusted for the particular individual,
he perceives intelligible audio, entirely independently of his external
- PRESENTLY PREFERRED QUANTITIES
- As mentioned previously, I prefer rhat the standard voltage
31 of FIG. 2 be about 50% of peak audio voltage. This not only helps to
reduce heating in the person 2 but also reduces spurious audio. This 50%
is not vital and the useful range is 25% to 85% of peak audio.
- The minimum burst repetition frequency (for example at
time points 33 and 34) is preferably 1 KHz and the maximum repetition frequency
is in the range of 25 KHz to 100 KHz, with the lower frequencies resulting
in less heating.
- The time duration of each individual pulse of microwave
radiation is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond as indicated
in FIG. 5, with the shorter time periods resulting in less heating.
- CONTROL OF POWER OUTPUT
- As stated above, I maintain the power output of the parabolic
antenna 22 within the present safe standard of 3.3 mw/cm2 (3.3 milliwatts
per square centimeter). I control the power output by controlling the strengtn
of the audio modulation. This results in a duty cycle of 0.005, the decimal
measure of the time in any second that the transmitter is on full power.
The peak power level can be between 500 mw and 5 w and at 0.005 duty cycle
these peaks will result in an average power of 2.5 mw and 25 mw respectively.
However, these values are further reduced by adjusting the audio modulation
so that zero input produces a zero output. Since a voice signal, for example,
is at maximum amplitude only a small fraction of the rime, the average
power will be below the 3.3 mw/cm2 standard, even with 5 watts peak power.
- THEORY OF OPERATION
- I have not been able to experiment to determine how my
microwave system works, but from my interpretation of prior work done in
this field I believe that the process is as follows. Any group of bursts
related to the audio ek 28 of FIG. 2 causes an increasing ultrasonic build
up within the head of a human being starting with a low level for the first
bursts pulses and building up to a high level with the last bursts pulses
of a group. This buildup, I believe, causes the direct discharge of random
brain neurons. These discharges at audio frequency create a perception
of sound. This process, I believe, bypasses the normal hearing organs and
can create sound in a person who is nerve-dead deaf. However, this theory
of operation is only my guess and may prove to be in error in the future.
- The apparatus of FIG. 1 for carrying out my invention
may include as a microwave generator Model PH40K of Applied Microwave Laboratories
and described as Signal Source. The cable 21 connecting the microwave generator
19 and the antenna is RG8 coaxial cable by Belden Industries. The antenna
22 may be a standard parabolic antenna. The FM generator 12 has to be specially
built to include the spacing runction which is obtained by a frequency
generator built into a srandard FM generator.
- I have described my invention witn respect to a presently
preferred embodiment as required by the patent statutes. It will be apparent
to those skilled in the technology that many variations, modification and
additions can be made. All such variations, modifications and additions
that come within the true spirit and scope of the invention are included
in the claims.
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