- EEE is a virus that is USUALLY sporadic in emergence.
It is far more deadly then West Nile virus and has, generally, a 50% kill
rate whereas West Nile Virus has approximately a 15% mortality rate. Although,
I would conclude that West Nile LIKE NY 99 isolate may be a bit higher.
- This year, the numbers of cases of EEE appears much higher
then normal and more concentrated i.e. less sporadic.
- This is proving to be an extremely virulent year for
insect vectored diseases.
- Patricia Doyle
- From ProMED-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
- Equine Encephalitis Stirs Worry In Health Officials
- CNN.com 7-4-2
- Health officials on alert for the return of West Nile
virus (WNV) are concerned about the re-emergence of another mosquito-borne
disease in the Southeast: eastern equine encephalitis (EEE).
- A Georgia man died 21 Jun 2003 in the nation's first
human case of the disease this year.
- Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina
have seen the highest number of horse cases of EEE in years. The disease,
which has existed in the United States for decades, kills nearly all unvaccinated
- "It's kind of going up the coast," said Laurel
Garrison, epidemiologist for the Georgia Division of Public Health.
- Although it rarely affects people, it can be more deadly
than WNV. Since 1964, there have been only 153 confirmed human cases of
the disease, also known as St. Louis encephalitis. [EEE is caused by a
separate virus from that which causes St. Louis Encephalitis and the names
are not interchangeable. - Mod.TG]
- "Eastern equine encephalitis has been an exceptionally
infrequent disease," said Dr. Anthony Marfin of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC)."If you saw 5 or 6 (human) cases a year,
that was a big year."
- But the virus kills up to 50 percent of people who catch
it, compared with up to 15 percent for West Nile Virus.
- "It's such a serious disease that we've been sending
press releases to warn people against this virus," said Nolan Newton
of the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
"I see no reason why it shouldn't just keep on going up the East Coast."
- Florida has had 99 horse cases in 31 counties this year.
The virus was confirmed in 11 Georgia horses and 2 birds. North Carolina
has had 4 horses test positive and South Carolina 17 horse cases.
- Virginia hasn't had any, but officials have sent e-mails
warnings across the state. It's been detected in a pair of birds in West
Virginia and has been found in Mississippi horses and even emus in Alabama.
- "We sort of should have expected it," said
Dr. Venaye Reece, equine programs coordinator with Clemson University's
livestock and poultry health programs office. "It's a cyclic disease
and runs in 10-year cycles."
- Concern over WNV -- and recently improved detection methods
for that virus -- may have led to better detection of EEE, Marfin said.
- "If you're collecting mosquitoes and are testing
them for (West Nile) virus, you might as well test them for St. Louis encephalitis,"
Marfin said. "It's raised awareness for mosquito-borne viruses everywhere."
- Health officials urge people to use similar precautions
against EEE as they would against WNV: wearing protective clothing and
using insect repellent while outdoors and getting rid of mosquito habitats,
such as standing water, around the home. Horses should be vaccinated against
- ProMED-mail <email@example.com>
- (Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is endemic in the
southern and eastern portions of the United States. EEE virus is a member
of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. It is closely related to western
and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. Symptoms in human beings range
from mild flu-like illness to frank encephalitis, coma, and death. Horses
and emus have long been sentinels because of their sensitivity to the virus.
Emus may be more sensitive than horses.
- There is a preventative vaccine for horses. It is most
often available in combination with western and Venezuelan virus and tetanus.
Some combinations have only eastern, western, and tetanus. Clinical signs
in horses include unsteadiness, erratic behavior, and a marked loss of
coordination. There is no effective treatment, and seizures resulting in
death usually occur in 48-72 hours. EEE has struck Louisiana and southern
Texas relatively hard for the last several years. Health officials there
have been urging horse owners to vaccinate and for people to take precautions
- St. Louis encephalitis virus is a flavivirus related
to Japanese encephalitis virus. There are up to 3000 cases per year in
the US. The majority of infections are subclinical or result in mild illness.
However, it can seriously affect the central nervous system and cause severe
complications and death.
- Mosquito control is a key to controlling these viruses.
People should use repellents and long-sleeved shirts and pants. Horses
should be vaccinated and have equine repellents applied. Any standing water,
however small, is a breeding ground for mosquitoes and should be eliminated.
These diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. The disease cannot be acquired
from an infected horse and is not transmitted from horse to horse or horse
to human. - Mod.TG)
- Patricia A. Doyle, PhD Please visit my "Emerging
Diseases" message board at: http://www.clickitnews.com/ubbthreads/postlist.php?Cat=&Board=emergingdiseases
Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa Go with God and in Good Health