- Ever get the sneaking suspicion you are being watched?
Maybe you should look under your bumper. On Sunday, July 6, three Boulder
residents discovered sophisticated Global Positioning System (GPS) devices
attached to the bottom of their cars, apparently used by someone to track
the whereabouts of their vehicles.
- The devices contained no immediate clues as to who planted
them or who used them to collect information, leaving the residents with
troubling questions: Who would be willing to spend the time and energy
to track them? And are we all being watched far more carefully than we
might want to imagine?
- Sunday morning surprise
- New York native Mike Nicosia is passionate about protecting
animals. He's been this way ever since he learned of their plight six years
- "I was just appalled to see the way animals are
treated for everything from fur farms to slaughter houses," he says.
"I wanted to do more to help animals. Because animals don't have a
voice, I wanted to be a voice for them."
- Nicosia became a vegan, participated in animal-rights
protests and launched a Long Island chapter of The Coalition to Abolish
the Fur Trade.
- "We have a no-nonsense approach to destroying the
fur trade," says Nicosia of the organization. "That means protests,
civil disobedience and outreach, as well as supporting the ALF."
- ALF stands for the Animal Liberation Front, a controversial
organization that combats animal abuse by releasing animals from testing
laboratories and destroying the property of those they deem to be exploiting
- While Nicosia says he had no direct connections with
the ALF, he publicly supported the organization's tactics. That was when
the surveillance began.
- Nicosia says wiretaps were installed on his phone. He
was photographed at protests. Plainclothes officers would follow him to
his car. He also received death threats from people within the fur industry.
One prominent fur community member was eventually issued a restraining
order after repeatedly threatening Nicosia's life.
- Nicosia came to Boulder two and a half years ago to study
psychology at Naropa University. Since arriving here, Nicosia has started
a new student group: the Student Organization for Animal Rights. Nicosia
says the group's main focus is education about the benefits of a vegan
lifestyle, not civil disobedience.
- Nicosia stresses he still has no association with ALF
and no ties to members of the organization, with the exception of his roommate-Rod
- Rod Coronado is well known in activist circles. A member
of the Earth First! movement and former media spokesperson for the ALF,
he has been a vigilant supporter of the animal rights and environmental
movements for 20 years.
- "I have always been an outspoken critic of America's
environmental policy and an open defender of actions to defend wilderness
and the animals," says Coronado.
- In 1994, Coronado was arrested for an arson attack at
Michigan State University's mink research facilities. After serving four
years in prison and three years in suspended release, Coronado began traveling
around the country talking about his previous actions and his political
- Over the past six months, Coronado and other activists
have been involved in a campaign against the logging in northwest California,
protesting in front of the homes of executives of the Houston-based Maxxam
Corporation, which owns the lumber company responsible for the logging.
- "We don't destroy property; we don't break the law
in any way. We are just exercising our free speech rights," says Coronado.
"Nevertheless, these people are very much affected, and it's enough
that they are very much aware of why we are there. We are holding them
accountable for what they have been profiting from for years."
- Federal surveillance is a routine part of Coronado's
life, and he says officials have been increasingly interested in his activities
since he began visiting the homes of Maxxam executives. That doesn't mean
he wasn't surprised on Sunday morning, July 6, when he was attaching a
trailer hitch to his car and noticed something underneath his vehicle that
wasn't supposed to be there.
- Nicosia says he was inside asleep that morning when Coronado
discovered the large black devices attached behind the rear bumpers of
his and his girlfriend's cars on the driver's side. When Nicosia woke up,
Coronado showed him the strange tangles of wires and electronics. Nicosia
immediately became curious if such a device had also been planted on his
- It took just a moment to discover the answer.
- Eyes in the sky
- A GPS device is essentially a super-charged version of
the standard compass; instead of just telling its user which way is north,
a GPS device will determine its exact location on earth.
- A GPS system operates by interacting with satellites
orbiting the earth containing highly accurate atomic clocks. When activated,
the GPS device will "look" at four of the satellites simultaneously.
By comparing the different times it reads on each of the atomic clocks,
the GPS device will calculate its distance from each satellite. Using this
information, the GPS device can determine not only its location, but also
the exact time it was at that location. Sensitive GPS devices can be accurate
down to a nanosecond and within 15 to 20 meters.
- While Nicosia and Coronado are not GPS experts, they
immediately assumed the devices found on their cars and Coronado's girlfriend's
car were GPS systems, especially since one component was labeled GPS Antenna.
- When Nicosia brought his device to GPS Solutions, a Boulder-based
software developer of high-accuracy GPS technology, chief engineer Jim
Johnson confirmed their suspicion.
- "This is definitely a GPS board," says Johnson,
referring to one of the components of the device.
- According to Johnson, the devices in question contain
four main components: a battery pack containing four lithium D cell batteries,
a GPS antenna, a cellular antenna and a main component box. The component
box contains a GPS receiver, a computer chip and a cellular modem. All
the components were wired together and attached by powerful magnets to
the cars' undersides.
- When attached to the car, the GPS antenna likely points
downwards towards the ground, to pick up signals from GPS satellites that
bounce off the road. This information is sent to the GPS receiver, which
determines its location at least within 100 meters, says Johnson. This
information can then be transmitted from the car to an outside source using
the modem and cellular antenna, just like a normal cell phone call. The
computer chip can be programmed to determine when the information is transmitted.
It's possible the information was sent out on a set schedule, or if the
vehicles entered or left a specified area.
- But where was the GPS information sent?
- The answer is not readily available. One thing is for
sure, however: The devices are not cheap.
- "They are putting some money into it," says
Johnson about the systems, which he estimates could cost about $2,000 each.
- Coronado says he is going to auction his device on eBay
and donate the proceeds to the animal-rights organization Stop Huntingdon
- Another enigma is who built these devices, which Johnson
says were probably custom made. While the GPS antennas are labeled with
serial numbers and the manufacturer name Trimble, one of the leading developers
of GPS technology, other components in the device are not made by Trimble,
says Johnson. Most of the components contain no labels at all, making them
untraceable. When Trimble was contacted and asked if the antennas' sales
histories could be tracked using their serial numbers, the company spokesperson
did not respond before press time.
- Nicosia and Coronado believe the devices were likely
placed on their cars while they were in Boulder during this past May, since
this was the only period of time and place the cars were all at the same
location. Coronado believes he is the main reason the devices were planted
on their cars, because of his controversial history. He says the GPS device
was likely planted on his girlfriend's car because he often uses it.
- Nicosia, who was both shocked and a little flattered
his car was bugged, also believes he was targeted because he lives with
- "I think it's just the 'guilt by association.' Me
calling (Coronado), hanging out with him has made me a target," says
- But the true explanation is probably not so simple. The
car belonging to Nicosia's and Coronado's other roommate-who is not involved
in animal rights-was not bugged. Whoever planted the devices had done some
- Who's watching?
- While he has no definitive proof, Coronado has several
theories as to who was tracking the vehicles. The most obvious suspect,
he says, is the FBI.
- "I believe it was the federal authorities,"
says Coronado. "I think that the technology is beyond that of the
private sector. The days of an FBI parked in a dark sedan in front of our
house are over."
- Coronado is no stranger to the FBI. Agents often show
up at animal rights and environmental demonstrations he takes part in,
says Coronado. Last year the FBI's top domestic terrorism official told
a congressional hearing that ALF was one of the most active domestic terrorist
organizations, and that at least 26 FBI field offices around the country
were dealing with ALF activities.
- Coronado and many of his compatriots would not put it
past the FBI to tamper with their belongings, even if it endangered activists
in the process. In 1990, Earth First! Activist Judi Bari was nearly killed
when a bomb equipped with a motion detector exploded underneath her seat.
She was on her way to meet Coronado. While local FBI agents claimed that
the bomb belonged to Bari, skeptics pointed out that the same FBI agents
had recently used a strikingly similar bomb scenario in a "bomb schools"
it had taught to area police officers. Last year a federal jury ruled that
FBI agents and police officers framed Bari and a coworker for the attack
that nearly killed them.
- Another clue that might link the GPS systems to the FBI
are three hand-written numbers discovered inside of the devices' battery
packs, a different number for each device. The numbers-141, 142 and 447-could
be used for tracking purposes, says Coronado, and could suggest that the
devices might be part of a much larger fleet of similar systems-a fleet
that could only belong to a major organization.
- FBI spokesperson Ann Atanasio could not explicitly say
whether or not the FBI had a role in the matter.
- "I cannot confirm or deny the existence of an investigation,"
says Atanasio, who also could not comment on FBI tracking techniques or
its position on the ALF.
- Coronado is not surprised that the FBI will not talk
about that subject.
- "That's the FBI standard policy." he says.
"They are not going to say, 'Oh yeah, we're the FBI. We do stuff like
that.'" Coronado believes FBI's refusal to investigate the matter
only further suggests they are involved.
- But Coronado is not certain the FBI was responsible,
especially since the devices were far from inconspicuous.
- "I kind of am surprised that the FBI would be stupid
enough to think we would not find these things on our cars," he says.
- Another suspect could be the Maxxam Corporation, which
Coronado and his compatriots have been protesting. After all, says Coronado,
since the company had enough money to recently sponsor a prominent ad campaign
labeling Coronado an eco-terrorist, they should have enough money to electronically
track Coronado's whereabouts.
- When contacted, Maxxam spokesperson Josh Reiss declined
to respond to the allegations.
- A third possibility, says Coronado, is the Center for
Consumer Freedom, a nonprofit coalition sponsored by restaurants, food
companies and tobacco corporations that oppose "anti-consumer activists."
The Center has been actively discouraging venues around the country from
sponsoring Coronado's seminars, calling him a domestic terrorist.
- Mike Burita, communications director for Center for Consumer
Freedom, says the organization does not partake in cloak and dagger techniques.
- "The suggestion we put a GPS (device) on Rod Coronado's
car is ridiculous," he says. "We are not in the business of covert
- Could the activists have planted the devices themselves
for media attention?
- Nicosia says the idea is outrageous.
- "It's not like I-making minimum wage, struggling
just to get by in Boulder-am going to throw together six or seven thousand
dollars and fabricate a story," he says.
- Coronado agrees.
- "If I had a couple thousand bucks in my pocket,
I'm going to use it to generate media attention by putting pressure on
(lumber companies), not by planting something on my car," says Coronado.
"Anybody who knows me knows that repression is not something I joke
around about. I spent four years of my life in jail because of this shit.
The last thing I am going to do is play with that with my friend's life,
the people I most love and trust."
- So who is responsible for the GPS devices? In reality,
it could be anybody who has several thousand dollars and knows how to use
- A quick Internet Google search using the words "GPS
car tracking" produces thousands of websites selling these types of
devices. A Trimble GPS magnetic-mount antenna similar to the ones found
by Coronado and Nicosia was being sold this week on eBay with a starting
price of $25.95.
- "I could buy one of these things today," says
GPS Solutions engineer Johnson about the tracking device. "In this
town, probably 25 percent of people could easily do it."
- A world without privacy
- "GPS is used for an amazingly large number of things,
much more than it was originally (designed) for," says Johnson.
- GPS technology was first unveiled in 1982 as a military
tool. Back then a GPS receiver cost about $200,000 and weighed 150 pounds.
There were only six GPS satellites, meaning that there was only a small
window of time each day that there were enough satellites in range for
an accurate GPS reading.
- Today GPS receivers weigh only a few ounces-small enough
to be installed inside cell phones-and are surprisingly inexpensive. Johnson
says one of the cheapest components in the GPS devices found in Boulder
is the receiver. Now there are 24 satellites in the sky dedicated to GPS
tracking. And GPS systems are popping up everywhere
- "It can be used for anything you can think of to
track moving objects," says Johnson. Companies and organizations like
GPS Solutions use the technology to monitor the motion of the earth's crust
and atmospheric pressure and temperature, among other things. GPS systems
are used to locate vehicles ranging from police cars to taxis to forklifts
in factories. One Boulder-based company, Intuicom, has installed GPS devices
on Boulder buses and tracks their location around the city on their website:
http://www.intuicom.com/www/solutions/avl_demo/demo_frame.htm. And the
potential for saving human lives is endless, from locating lost hikers
to predicting tsunamis.
- But along with its potential benefits, the rise of GPS
also means new questions about privacy and surveillance in society.
- "Certainly there are ethical issues," says
Johnson about GPS technology. "The downside of GPS is it is a military
weapon, and there are privacy issues down the line."
- For example, says Johnson, what if Nicosia had driven
his car to Denver International Airport without knowing about the device
behind his bumper? And what if airport security had noticed the suspicious
electronics and wires?
- But Johnson says the problem lies not with the technology,
but with how it is used.
- "This is not the only way you can be tracked,"
says Johnson. "The problem isn't so much that there is GPS. The problem
is that there are people that want to stretch the limits of your basic
freedoms, whether they do it by staking you out and following you or do
it with a piece of equipment. That issue is always there."
- Betty Ball, a Boulder activist who works at the locally
based Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center, agrees that technologies
like GPS can be beneficial. But the discovery of these devices on local
residents' cars suggest a sinister concept to Ball-that the U.S. government's
long-term policy of keeping tabs on controversial groups has reached a
new technological horizon. And Ball isn't sure anyone will be safe.
- "Who knows how widespread it is," she says.
"These (GPS devices) we know about were found by pretty well-known
activists who have quite a history of activism and resistance. But you
never really know what (the authorities) are going to go after and who
they really consider a key person they need to keep track of and follow."
- Ball believes this type of high-tech surveillance has
become common thanks to the same national climate of fear and oppression
that led to the passage of the Patriot Act, the post-Sept. 11 federal legislation
which gave authorities sweeping new powers to combat terrorism-even at
the expense of citizens' rights, some critics say.
- "My impression is that our government knows they
are going too far," says Ball. "They are implementing laws and
policies going against the will of the people to the degree they are going
to get massive resistance, and that is why they came up with the Patriot
Act, and this means of GPS surveillance, and surveillance of our computers
and websites and e-mail and all that kind of stuff. It's all part and parcel
of the same thing, that the government knows they are going to encounter
massive resistance, so they are taking every opportunity right now to create
the controls to control us."
- The only option, says Ball, is to fight tooth and nail
to protect U.S. civil liberties from being eroded by new legislation and
- "(The government) is trying to scare us-they are
using these intimidation tactics to scare people. And we can't afford to
let that happen," says Ball. "The more people that get involved,
the more people who resist this kind of thing, the better off we are going
- If someone was trying to scare Nicosia into submission,
they were not successful. While Nicosia is still doesn't like the idea
of some shadowy individual monitoring him, it has not caused Nicosia to
curtail his involvement in the animal-rights movement.
- "It's made me more determined and vigilant,"
he says. "I'm going to go out there and work even harder for the animals
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