- From Patricia Doyle, PhD
-  Date: Mon 12 Apr 2004 From: ProMED-mail <email@example.com>
Source: Ohio Department of Health, News, press release, Fri 9 Apr 2004
- Ohio: 1st Probable Human Case of West Nile Virus Infection
- The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) today announced its
1st probable case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in 2004. The patient
is a 79-year-old male from Scioto County. "With warm weather in recent
weeks, mosquitoes have become active," said ODH Director J. Nick Baird,
M.D. "Today's development should remind us all of the importance
of taking personal protection measures and working to eliminate mosquito
breeding sites on and around our properties."
- In 2003, Ohio reported 108 probable and confirmed human
cases of WNV and 8 WNV-related deaths; the 1st human case was reported
on 18 Jul 2003. In 2002, Ohio reported 441 human cases and 31 deaths. Human
WNV cases typically do not appear until late summer in Ohio. ODH and the
local health authorities are working to determine where the patient may
have been exposed to the virus.
- "West Nile virus and other vector-borne illnesses
are preventable," Baird said. "By taking some simple steps, you
can help ensure that you and your loved ones remain healthy and safe when
outside this spring and summer." The tick and mosquito season in
Ohio generally runs from April through September.
- -- ProMED-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- *****  Date: 12 Apr 2004 From: ProMED-mail <email@example.com>
Source: Telegraph Forum [edited]
- West Nile Virus Testing Begins Monday
- Another season of West Nile Virus monitoring begins Monday
[12 Apr 2004], according to Crawford County General Health District Environmental
Health Director Jackie Ward, R.S. This is the date the Ohio Department
of Health will start allowing local health departments to submit dead birds
for testing of the virus.
- This year , bird testing is open to all song birds
and crows. Once 2 positive birds are found in the same county, the bird
testing will stop and other preventative measures will begin. It is important
that county residents contact the Crawford County General Health District
at 419-562-5871 to report dead birds.
- Residents in Galion and Crestline should contact the
Galion City Health Department at 419-468-1075. Information should include
the type of bird found and the location. Wear gloves when handling a dead
bird and place the creature in a plastic bag and then into another plastic
bag. Put it on ice to prevent it from decomposing. If the bird has been
dead longer than 48 hours or shows signs of decomposition, use the above
information on handling the bird and then dispose of it with your normal
- The health district also will set out mosquito traps
to catch mosquitoes for testing.
- To protect yourself and your family, Ward recommends
- Try to avoid the peak exposure time, which is at dusk.
- Wear light-colored clothing with long sleeves & long
pants when you cannot avoid being exposed to mosquitoes.
- Use repellents carefully. More is not necessarily better,
so read the product label instructions and follow their recommendations.
Certain repellents may not be appropriate for younger children.
- Be sure the screens in your house are 16-mesh or finer.
- Mosquitoes need standing water to breed, so make sure
there is no stagnant water anywhere around your home. Empty bird baths
at least once a week. Any other containers that hold water should be emptied
and stored so that they will no longer hold water.
- Remove, cover or store unused tires inside. If you are
not using the tires, take them to a recycling center.
- If you have a septic system, make sure that it is working
properly and not causing wet areas in the yard that would allow mosquitoes
- Look around your neighborhood for streams or roadside
ditches that aren't flowing. Contact the appropriate individuals to try
and have the matter corrected.
- HEPATITIS D IN AMERINDIANS - BRAZIL (AMAZONAS) SUSPECTED
- *************** Date: Mon 12 Apr 2004 From: Luz Alba
Fornells <firstname.lastname@example.org> Source: Jornal Estadao, Mon 12
Apr 2004 [in Portuguese, summarized by Mod.JW; edited]
- Brazil: Deaths Associated with Suspected Hepatitis D
- At least 20 Marubo indians have died from suspected hepatitis
delta virus infection in the Javari Valley, extreme west of Amazonas state.
The disease also threatens the Matise, Canamari, and Corubo tribes.
- 2 boatloads of health personnel, including 4 doctors,
departed Sun 11 Apr 2004 from Tabatinga, on the frontier of Brazil with
Peru and Colombia, to take medical aid to the tribes along the Solimoes
[Upper Amazon], Javali, Itaquai, and Itui rivers. The boat is equipped
with ultrasound and digital x-ray machines, and will send test results
by satellite for analysis in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina state. They
expect to examine 1000 Amerindians in the indian reserve of the Javali
Valley, which at 8.5 million hectares is the size of Portugal.
-- Luz Alba Fornells <email@example.com>
- [Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective satellite
virus that is dependent on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication.
HDV infection can be acquired either as a co-infection with HBV or as
a superinfection of persons with chronic HBV infection. Persons with HBV/HDV
co-infection may have more severe acute disease and a higher risk of fulminant
hepatitis (2-20 percent) compared with those infected with HBV alone; however,
chronic HBV infection appears to occur less frequently in individuals with
HBV/HDV co- infection.
- Chronic HBV carriers who acquire HDV superinfection usually
develop chronic HDV infection. In long-term studies of chronic HBV carriers
with HDV superinfection, 70-80 percent have developed evidence of chronic
liver diseases with cirrhosis, compared with 15- 30 percent of patients
with chronic HBV infection alone. Control of HBV infection using HBV vaccine
would simultaneously eradicate any hepatitis D virus, since it is dependent
on HBV for its replication.
- Studies performed over the past 35 years on communities
in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity
of HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated with
a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among chronic HBV carriers.
Circulation of both agents occurs mainly by horizontal virus transmission
during childhood, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. 3 genotypes
of hepatitis D virus are recognized, genotype III being restricted to the
Amazon basin and South America.
- Disease related to HDV infection in these outbreaks has
been very severe, with rapid progression to fulminant hepatitis and case-fatality
rates of 10-20 percent. The cause of the atypical course of HDV infection
in these populations is unknown. The modes of HDV transmission are similar
to those for HBV, with percutaneous exposures the most efficient. Sexual
transmission of HDV is less efficient than for HBV. Perinatal HDV transmission
is rare. The serologic course of HDV infection varies depending on whether
the virus is acquired as a co-infection with HBV or as a superinfection
of a person with chronic HBV infection. In most persons with HBV/HDV co-infection,
both IgM antibody to HDV (anti-HDV) and IgG anti-HDV are detectable during
the course of infection. However, in about 15 percent of patients, the
only evidence of HDV infection may be the detection of either IgM anti-HDV
alone during the early acute period of illness or IgG anti-HDV alone during
convalescence. Anti-HDV generally declines to sub-detectable levels after
the infection resolves, and there is no serologic marker that persists
to indicate that the patient was ever infected with HDV. Hepatitis Delta
antigen (HDAg) can be detected in serum in only about 25 percent of patients
with HBV-HDV co- infection.
- When HDAg is detectable it generally disappears as HBsAg
disappears, and most patients do not develop chronic infection. - Mod.CP]
- Patricia A. Doyle, PhD Please visit my "Emerging
Diseases" message board at: http://www.clickitnews.com/ubbthreads/postlist.php?Cat=&Board=emergingdiseases
Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa Go with God and in Good Health