- The nineteen months since the war in Iraq began, some
of the most outspoken critics of President Bush's plan of attack have come
from a group that should have been the most supportive: retired senior
military leaders. We spoke with a group of generals and admirals that included
a former supreme Allied commander and a former chairman of the Joint Chiefs,
and they all agreed on one thing: Bush screwed up.
- Adm. Stansfield Turner NATO Allied commander for Southern
Europe, 1975-77 CIA Director, 1977-81
- We are in a real mess. There are eighty-seven attacks
on Americans every day, and our people in Baghdad can't even leave the
International Zone without being heavily armored. I think we are in trouble
because we were so slow in terms of reconstruction and reconstituting the
military and police forces. We have lost the support of the Iraqi people
who were glad to see Saddam go. But they are not glad to see an outside
force come in and replace him without demonstrating we are going to provide
them with security and rebuild their economy. I am very frustrated. Having
a convincing rationale for going in gives our troops a sense of purpose.
Whatever you call it, this is now an insurgency using the techniques of
terrorism. With the borders poorly guarded, the terrorists come in. All
in all, Iraq is a failure of monumental proportions.
- Lt. Gen. William Odom Director of the National Security
- It's a huge strategic disaster, and it will only get
worse. The sooner we leave, the less the damage. In the months since the
invasion, the U.S. forces have become involved in trying to repress a number
of insurgency movements. This is the way we were fighting in Vietnam, and
if we keep on fighting this way, this one is going to go on a long time
too. The idea of creating a constitutional state in a short amount of time
is a joke. It will take ten to fifteen years, and that is if we want to
kill ten percent of the population.
- Gen. Merrill 'Tony' McPeak Air Force Chief of Staff,
- We have a force in Iraq that's much too small to stabilize
the situation. It's about half the size, or maybe even a third, of what
we need. As a consequence, the insurgency seems to be gathering momentum.
We are losing people at a fairly steady rate of about two a day; wounded,
about four or five times that, and perhaps half of these wounds are very
serious. And we are also sustaining gunshot wounds, when, before, we'd
mostly been seeing massive trauma from remotely detonated charges. This
means the other side is standing and fighting in a way that describes a
more dangerous phase of the conflict.
- The people in control in the Pentagon and the White House
live in a fantasy world. They actually thought everyone would just line
up and vote for a new democracy and you would have a sort of Denmark with
oil. I blame Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and the people behind him
-- Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz and Undersecretary Douglas Feith.
The vice president himself should probably be included; certainly his wife.
These so-called neocons: These people have no real experience in life.
They are utopian thinkers, idealists, very smart, and they have the courage
of their convictions, so it makes them doubly dangerous.
- The parallels between Iraq and Vietnam have been overblown,
because we were in Vietnam for a decade and it cost us 58,000 troops. We've
been in Iraq for nineteen months and we're still under 1,200 killed. But
there is one sense in which the parallel with Vietnam is valid. The American
people were told that to win the Cold War we had to win Vietnam. But we
now know that Vietnam was not only a diversion from winning the Cold War
but probably delayed our winning it and made it cost more to win. Iraq
is a diversion to the war on terror in exactly the same way Vietnam was
a diversion to the Cold War.
- Gen. Anthony Zinni Commander in chief of the United States
Central Command, 1997-2000
- The first phase of the war in Iraq, the conventional
phase, the major combat phase, was brilliantly done. Tommy Franks' approach
to methodically move up and attack quickly probably saved a great humanitarian
disaster. But the military was unprepared for the aftermath. Rumsfeld and
others thought we would be greeted with roses and flowers.
- When I was commander of CENTCOM, we had a plan for an
invasion of Iraq, and it had specific numbers in it. We wanted to go in
there with 350,000 to 380,000 troops. You didn't need that many people
to defeat the Republican Guard, but you needed them for the aftermath.
We knew that we would find ourselves in a situation where we had completely
uprooted an authoritarian government and would need to freeze the situation:
retain control, retain order, provide security, seal the borders to keep
terrorists from coming in.
- When I left in 2000, General Franks took over. Franks
was my ground-component commander, so he was well aware of the plan. He
had participated in it; those were the numbers he wanted. So what happened
between him and Rumsfeld and why those numbers got altered, I don't know,
because when we went in we used only 140,000 troops, even though General
Eric Shinseki, the army commander, asked for the original number.
- Did we have to do this? I saw the intelligence right
up to the day of the war, and I did not see any imminent threat there.
If anything, Saddam was coming apart. The sanctions were working. The containment
was working. He had a hollow military, as we saw. If he had weapons of
mass destruction, it was leftover stuff -- artillery shells and rocket
rounds. He didn't have the delivery systems. We controlled the skies and
seaports. We bombed him at will. All of this happened under U.N. authority.
I mean, we had him by the throat. But the president was being convinced
by the neocons that down the road we would regret not taking him out.
- Lt. Gen. Claudia Kennedy Army Deputy Chief of Staff for
- From the beginning, i was asked which side I took, Shinseki's
or Rumsfeld's. And I said Shinseki. I mean, Rumsfeld proudly announced
that he had told General Franks to fight this war with different tactics
in which they would bypass enemy strongholds and enemy resistance and keep
on moving. But it was shocking to me that the secretary of defense would
tell the Army how to fight. He doesn't know how to fight; he has no business
telling them. It's completely within civilian authority to tell you where
to fight, what our major objective is, but it is absolutely no one's business
but uniformed military to tell you how to do the job. To me, it was astonishing
that Rumsfeld would presume to tell four-star generals, in the Army thirty-five
years, how to do their jobs.
- Now here's another thing that Rumsfeld did. As he was
being briefed on the war plan, he was cherry-picking the units to go. In
other words, he didn't just approve the deployment list, he went down the
list and skipped certain units that were at a higher degree of readiness
to go and picked units that were lower on the list -- for reasons we don't
know. But here's the impact: Recently, at an event, a mother told me how
her son had been recruited and trained as a cook. Three weeks before he
deployed to Iraq, he was told he was now a gunner. And they gave him training
for three weeks, and then off he went.
- Rumsfeld was profoundly in the dark. I think he really
didn't understand what he was doing. He miscalculated the kind of war it
was and he miscalculated the interpretation of U.S. behavior by the Iraqi
people. They felt they had been invaded. They did not see this as a liberation.
- As for the recent news about the 380 tons of explosives
that disappeared, it's irrelevant when they disappeared. This was known
by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a site to be watched. Here
is the issue: Bush tried to turn this into a political matter instead of
answering questions about why he didn't follow the warnings of the IAEA.
It was another example of Bush being a cheerleader instead of a leader.
Nothing in Iraq was guarded except for the oil fields, which tells you
why we were there. There are any number of indications that with a larger
troop strength we would have been able to deal with such sites. Here is
my other concern: The IAEA gave us a list of sites to be watched, so there
may have been other dumps that were looted. After all, you don't just put
one item on a list.
- So what do we do? I think it would be very irresponsible
for us to simply pull out. It sounds like a very simple solution, but it
would have some complexity and danger attached. Still, Iraq is a blood
bath, and we need to be dealing with this in a much more sophisticated
way than the cowboy named Bush.
- Gen. Wesley Clark NATO supreme Allied commander for Europe,
- Troop strength was not the only problem. We got into
this mess because the Bush administration decided what they really wanted
to do was to invade Iraq, and then the only question was, for what reason?
They developed two or three different reasons. It wasn't until the last
minute that they came up and said, "Hey, by the way, we are going
to create a wave of democracy across the Middle East."
- That was February of 2003, and by that time they hadn't
planned anything. In October of 2003, Donald Rumsfeld wrote a memo asking
questions that should have been asked in 2001: Do we have an overall strategy
to win the war on terror? Do we have the right organization to win the
war on terror? How are we going to know if we are not winning the war on
terror? As it has turned out, the guys on the ground are doing what they
are told to do. But let's ask this question: Have you seen an American
strategic blunder this large? The answer is: not in fifty years. I can't
imagine when the last one was. And it's not just about troop strength.
I mean, you will fail if you don't have enough troops, but simply adding
troops won't make you succeed.
- Adm. William Crowe Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
- We screwed up. We were intent on a quick victory with
smaller forces, and we felt if we had a military victory everything else
would fall in place. We would be viewed not as occupiers but as victors.
We would draw down to 30,000 people within the first sixty days.
- All of this was sheer nonsense.They thought that once
Iraq fell we'd have a similar effect throughout the Middle East and terrorism
would evaporate, blah, blah, blah. All of these were terrible assumptions.
A State Department study advising otherwise was sent to Rumsfeld, but he
threw it in the wastebasket. He overrode the military and was just plain
stubborn on numbers. Finally the military said OK, and they totally underestimated
the impact the desert had on our equipment and the kind of troops we would
need for peacekeeping. They ignored Shinseki. The Marines were advising
the same way. But the military can only go so far. Once the civilian leadership
decides otherwise, the military is obliged.
- There is not a very good answer for what to do next.
We've pulled out of several places without achieving our objectives, and
every time we predicted the end of Western civilization, which it was not.
We left Korea after not achieving anything we wanted to do, and it didn't
hurt us very much. We left Vietnam -- took us ten years to come around
to doing it -- but we didn't achieve what we wanted. Everyone said it would
set back our foreign policy in East Asia for ten years. It set it back
about two months. Our allies thought we were crazy to be in Vietnam.
- We could have the same thing happen this time in Iraq.
If we walk away, we are still the number-one superpower in the world. There
will be turmoil in Iraq, and how that will affect our oil supply, I don't
know. But the question to ask is: Is what we are achieving in Iraq worth
what we're paying? Weighing the good against the bad, we have got to get