- A little known fact: Popular ideas about the Sun have
not fared well under the tests of a scientific theory. The formulators
of the standard Sun model worked with gravity, gas laws, and nuclear fusion.
But closer observation of the Sun has shown that electrical and magnetic
properties dominate solar behavior.
- For centuries, the nature of the Sun's radiance remained
a mystery to astronomers. The Sun is the only object in the solar system
that produces its own visible light. All others reflect the light of the
Sun. What unique trait of the Sun enables it to shine upon the other objects
in the solar system?
- Today, astronomers assure us that the most fundamental
question is answered. The Sun is a thermonuclear furnace. The ball of gas
is so large that astronomers envision pressures and densities within its
core sufficient to generate temperatures of about 16 million K - producing
a continuous "controlled" nuclear reaction.
- Most astronomers and astrophysicists investigating the
Sun are so convinced of the fusion model that only the rarest among them
will countenance challenges to the underlying idea. Standard textbooks
and institutional research, complemented by a chorus of scientific and
popular media, "ratify" the fusion model of the Sun year after
year by ignoring evidence to the contrary.
- A growing group of independent researchers, however,
insists that the popular idea is incorrect. These researchers say that
the Sun is electric. It is a glow discharge fed by galactic currents. And
they emphasize that the fusion model anticipated none of the milestone
discoveries about the Sun, while the electric model predicts and explains
the very observations that posed the greatest quandaries for solar investigation.
- More than 60 years ago, Dr. Charles E. R. Bruce, of the
Electrical Research Association in England, offered a new perspective on
the Sun. An electrical researcher, astronomer, and expert on the effects
of lightning, Bruce proposed in 1944 that the Sun's "photosphere has
the appearance, the temperature and the spectrum of an electric arc; it
has arc characteristics because it is an electric arc, or a large number
of arcs in parallel." This discharge characteristic, he claimed, "accounts
for the observed granulation of the solar surface." Bruce's model,
however, was based on a conventional understanding of atmospheric lightning,
allowing him to envision the "electric" Sun without reference
to external electric fields.
- Years later, a brilliant engineer, Ralph Juergens, inspired
by Bruce's work, added a revolutionary possibility. In a series of articles
beginning in 1972, Juergens suggested that the Sun is not an electrically
isolated body in space, but the most positively charged object in the solar
system, the center of a radial electric field. This field, he said, lies
within a larger galactic field. With this hypothesis, Juergens became the
first to make the theoretical leap to an external power source of the Sun.
- Juergens proposed that the Sun is the focus of a "coronal
glow discharge" fed by galactic currents. To avoid misunderstanding
of this concept, it is essential that we distinguish the complex, electrodynamic
glow discharge model of the Sun from a simple electrostatic model that
can be easily dismissed. Throughout most of the volume of a glow discharge
the plasma is nearly neutral, with almost equal numbers of protons and
electrons. In this view, the charge differential at the Earth's distance
from the Sun is smaller than our present ability to measure - perhaps one
or two electrons per cubic meter. But the charge density is far higher
closer to the Sun, and at the solar corona and surface the electric field
is of sufficient strength to generate all of the energetic phenomena we
- Today, the electrical theorists Wallace Thornhill and
Donald Scott urge a critical comparison of the fusion model and the electrical
model. Given what we now know about the Sun, which model meets the tests
of unity, coherence, simplicity, and predictability? Why did so many discoveries
surprise investigators and even contradict the expectations of the fusion
model? Is there any fundamental feature of the Sun that contradicts the
glow discharge hypothesis?
- Our closer looks at the Sun have revealed the pervasive
influence of magnetic fields, which are the effect of electric currents.
Sunspots, prominences, coronal mass ejections, and a host of other features
require ever more complicated guesswork on behalf of the fusion model.
But this is the way an anode in a coronal glow discharge behaves!
- In the electrical model, the Sun is the "anode"
or positively charged body in the electrical exchange, while the "cathode"
or negatively charged contributor is not a discrete object, but the invisible
"virtual cathode" at the limit of the Sun's coronal discharge.
(Coronal discharges can sometimes be seen as a glow surrounding high-voltage
transmission wires, where the wire discharges into the surrounding air).
This virtual cathode lies far beyond the planets. In the lexicon of astronomy,
this is the "heliopause." In electrical terms, it is the cellular
sheath or "double layer" separating the plasma cell that surrounds
the Sun ("heliosphere") from the enveloping galactic plasma.
- In an electric universe, such cellular forms are expected
between regions of dissimilar plasma properties. According to the glow
discharge model of the Sun, almost the entire voltage difference between
the Sun and its galactic environment occurs across the thin boundary sheath
of the heliopause. Inside the heliopause there is a weak but constant radial
electrical field centered on the Sun. A weak electric field, immeasurable
locally with today's instruments but cumulative across the vast volume
of space within the heliosphere, is sufficient to power the solar discharge.
- The visible component of a coronal glow discharge occurs
above the anode, often in layers. The Sun's red chromosphere is part of
this discharge. (Unconsciously, it seems, the correct electrical engineering
term was applied to the Sun's corona.) Correspondingly, the highest particle
energies are not at the photosphere but above it. The electrical theorists
see the Sun as a perfect example of this characteristic of glow discharges
- a radical contrast to the expected dissipation of energy from the core
outward in the fusion model of the Sun.
- At about 500 kilometers (310 miles) above the photosphere
or visible surface, we find the coldest measurable temperature, about 4400
degrees K. Moving upward, the temperature then rises steadily to about
20,000 degrees K at the top of the chromosphere, some 2200 kilometers (1200
miles) above the Sun's surface. Here it abruptly jumps hundreds of thousands
of degrees, then continues slowly rising, eventually reaching 2 million
degrees in the corona. Even at a distance of one or two solar diameters,
ionized oxygen atoms reach 200 million degrees!
- In other words the "reverse temperature gradient,"
while meeting the tests of the glow discharge model, contradicts every
original expectation of the fusion model.
- But this is only the first of many enigmas and contradictions
facing the fusion hypothesis. As astronomer Fred Hoyle pointed out years
ago, with the strong gravity and the mere 5,800-degree temperature at the
surface, the Sun's atmosphere should be only a few thousand kilometers
thick, according to the "gas laws" astrophysicists typically
apply to such bodies. Instead, the atmosphere balloons out to 100,000 kilometers,
where it heats up to a million degrees or more. From there, particles accelerate
out among the planets in defiance of gravity. Thus the planets, Earth included,
could be said to orbit inside the Sun's diffuse atmosphere.
- The discovery that blasts of particles escape the Sun
at an estimated 400- to 700-kilometers per second came as an uncomfortable
surprise for advocates of the nuclear powered model. Certainly, the "pressure"
of sunlight cannot explain the acceleration of the solar "wind".
In an electrically neutral, gravity-driven universe, particles were not
hot enough to escape such massive bodies, which (in the theory) are attractors
only. And yet, the particles of the solar wind continue to accelerate past
Venus, Earth, and Mars. Since these particles are not miniature "rocket
ships," this acceleration is the last thing one should expect!
- According to the electric theorists, a weak electric
field, focused on the Sun, better explains the acceleration of the charged
particles of the solar wind. Electric fields accelerate charged particles.
And just as magnetic fields are undeniable witnesses to the presence of
electric currents, particle acceleration is a good measure of the strength
of an electric field.
- A common mistake made by critics of the electric model
is to assume that the radial electric field of the Sun should be not only
measurable but also strong enough to accelerate electrons toward the Sun
at "relativistic" speeds (up to 300,000 kilometers per second).
By this argument, we should find electrons not only zipping past our instruments
but also creating dramatic displays in Earth's night sky.
- But as noted above, in the plasma glow-discharge model
the interplanetary electric field will be extremely weak. No instrument
placed in space could measure the radial voltage differential across a
few tens of meters, any more than it could measure the solar wind acceleration
over a few tens of meters. But we can observe the solar wind acceleration
over tens of millions of kilometers, confirming that the electric field
of the Sun, though imperceptible in terms of volts per meter, is sufficient
to sustain a powerful drift current across interplanetary space. Given
the massive volume of this space, the implied current is quite sufficient
to power the Sun.
- Look for more details on the drift current, solar magnetic
fields, nuclear reactions, and many other features of the Sun in upcoming
Pictures of the Day.
- See also these Pictures of the Day -
- Arc Lamp in the Sky
- Stellar Nurseries
- Electric Stars
- The Iron Sun
- Solar Tornadoes
- Kepler Supernova Remnant
- From Ted Twietmeyer
- In The Electric Glow Of The Sun, some very valid points
were made. Further, the sun may be a macroversion of structure of the atom
on the atomic scale. One such example in nature is crystal growth. It is
known that crystals can also have cubic structure like bismuth. When it
grows, it creates a mirror version on the macroscale of how it's structured
on the atomic scale. Science learned this a long time ago about crystals
of many types, and utilizes this phenomena to make many products we use
- Astronomers tend to apply bizarre theories to things
they don't understand. Even if such theories fly in the face of reason.
Case in point - comets. For more than a century most every astronomer always
repeated the "dirty snowball" theory like a mantra. Even though
there is no concrete proof such a thing was possible. For example, how
could a comet fly for many millenia through the solar system, emitting
tails of "particles" and never running out of material? It's
beyond reason. Fly-by photos of Halley's comet wiped out the "dirty
- Our sun fits into the same mainstream "astronomy
thought process" as the comet. That is, the popular theory that the
sun is "sucking in" all the hydrogen to function from surrounding
space to fuel it's fusion furnace. Has this ever been proven or observed
to be the sun's energy source? No. Yet because few astronomers have hardly
bothered to apply reason to this concept, the obsurd theory stands (like
a house of cards waiting for a breeze.)
- I've said for some years now that because of the balance
of nature and energy flow, the sun could be a white hole. This would make
it the opposite end of a black hole. Our sun can also be electrical in
nature as described in the above article.
- Ted Twietmeyer