- Logically one would think that craters on celestial bodies
in our Solar System are usually round. Our moon has shown this to be true
with hundreds of round craters, and laboratory experiments using miniature
meteors blasted into dry sand also produce round craters. This would make
sense, since the shock wave from an impact perpendicular to a celestial
body's surface by a meteor or asteroid would radiate outward in a 360 degree
pattern. Even if the impact isn't perfectly straight down, material will
still be displaced in all directions to some degree, even creating a tear-
drop shaped craters.
- Today we know that out there in our Solar System on some
of our moons, craters and other features are not round but polygon-shaped,
usually with six sides. At first glance this may seem insignificant, but
it is not. Iapetus is another moon has numerous craters which clearly appear
to have polygon shapes:
- Fig. 1 - Here we clearly see numerous polygon shapes
on Iapetus, which NASA says little about.
- Fig. 2 - Iapetus, third largest moon of Saturn, It has
a massive hexagon shape, and the infamous ridge (black arrow) which is
approximately 20 km wide x 13 km high, and almost 1300 km long (JPL)
- Many researchers have written about the high strangeness
of Phobos, a very small moon orbiting Mars. (Some have also observed what
appears to be a monolith standing on the surface, but no close-up images
of the column appear to be available. We will not cover that in this essay.)
In my research with Mars' surface objects in raw images from the Rovers,
artificial objects were discovered on the not-so-red planet. It makes
one ponder that perhaps some of this high strangeness with Mars may also
be present on Mars' moons. We shall look at one of these moons named Phobos.
- Fig. 3 - Here is one of several NASA images of Phobos
enlarged 150% to bring out details of polygon shapes. No other image enhancement
was performed which can create unwanted artifacts. Note the polygon shapes.
Phobos is 27km in length. 
- Fig. 4 - In this notated image of Phobos, we can see
some of the hexagonal shapes on the moon's surface. (Not all shapes are
notated here for clarity.) At the bottom of the image (red circle) we can
see three crater-like indentations in the surface, equidistant from the
larger hexagonal shaped crater in the center. These craters appear to be
on a square, slightly raised plateau which is barely visible in the image.
(Compare this image to Fig. 3.)
- SUPPORT FOR THE GOODSPEED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MODEL
- At the top of this image are four craters (yellow circle.)
Each one is about the same size and all are almost perfectly spaced apart.
This could fit the physical effects of the electrical discharge model by
Michael Goodspeed of thunderbolts.info. I would like to add some supporting
thoughts here for Michael's model. The following comments are referencing
evenly spaced craters such as those inside the yellow circle and others
on these moons.
- Electrical discharges (or arcing) are known to have fixed
repetition rates. Repetition rates are determined by something called a
"time constant" in electrical engineering. Without delving into
the full theory of that here, it is sufficient to say that time constants
can be either simple or complex in nature, and can apply to AC, DC or static
electricity. In the case of an electrical arc between Phobos and another
celestial body, the very high voltage would be similar to static electricity.
The time constant (or arcing repetition rate) between Phobos and another
celestial body will be a function of surface conductivity, dielectric constant,
surface area of the planet or moon, any gas or atmosphere between the two
celestial bodies and the magnitude of the electrical charge difference
between the two celestial bodies, known as voltage.
- As the two bodies draw close to one another, an initial
arc between the two charged celestial bodies takes place and the electrical
charge in the region of the arc is dissipated as the voltage drops below
a certain point. This causes the arc to quench. In the case of planets
and moons, this will most likely consist of a huge electrical potential
which would be billions of volts or perhaps even more. An example in microcosm
on Earth would be walking across a carpet and getting a single shock from
a doorknob of a few thousand volts.
- This is what could happen between two celestial bodies
in space, but on an unimaginably larger scale. You place your finger near
the doorknob and quickly withdraw it after feeling the shock. It's possible
to get shocked again as the charge on your body re- distributes if you
placed your finger near the doorknob again. However, the each successive
time you will need to place your finger closer. The same would hold true
between two celestial bodies.
- At the moment the arc between the two celestial bodies
quenches, the electrical charges on each body will immediately begin charge
re-distribution. Electrical charges will seek to re-distribute themselves
over the entire surface of the moon or planet when no other electrical
discharge path is present.
- Here's another example of how this works: Think about
a large picture tube television. If you place your finger near the screen,
high voltage static will arc to your finger once and stop. If you place
your finger near the same place on the screen again later on, it will arc
to your finger again. This will happen on a massive scale with celestial
bodies, as the electrical charge builds up again in the region of the original
discharge, which initiates a second arc, a third arc, etc
- If the two charged bodies are in motion while the arcing
is repeating, it's quite likely that the arc will strike a different place
on each celestial body, each time. It may have been this process that formed
the small series of craters in the yellow circled area of Fig. 4. The arcing
process repeats itself until one or more of the following takes place:
- Electrical charge on each celestial body no longer has
a sufficient high potential difference (voltage) to generate further discharges.
Plus or minus polarities are not important here, only the voltage differences
between the two celestial bodies.
- Electrical charge of the two celestial bodies has finally
equalized which stops the process.
- The two celestial bodies move away from each other far
enough to prevent further arcing.
- The distance between the first arc site on the moon or
planet and succeeding arc sites is a direct function of the velocity between
the two celestial bodies. If there was actual physical contact between
two celestial bodies, then only one arc may take place.
- UNANSWERED QUESTIONS AND POLYGON SHAPES
- Like Iapetus, Phobos does not appear to have large round
craters. Instead, almost all the large craters and features we see on Phobos
have a polygon shape, usually in the form of a hexagon.
- Considering how many polygons appear to be just under
the surface of both moons, could these polygonal structures be similar
to seams in a baseball- showing us where these moons were assembled by
an unknown race?
- Are the polygon shapes the result of an energy weapon
used against these moons?
- Why would polygons be present in such large quantities?
- Why are octagons or other polygon shapes with more sides
found on Phobos?
- Why are there so many similar hexagon shapes on both
Iapetus and Phobos?
- Did an unknown race engineer and construct our Solar
System eons ago?
- There are many theories that suggest Phobos, like Iapetus
and possibly other moons in our Solar System are of artificial origin.
Until somehow proven otherwise by soil samples, artifacts or radar, any
theory will remain viable to explain the origins of these moons. It would
not be surprising if Iapetus was later found to be hollow by radar.
- And finally one of the most important questions of all:
If any of the moons are found to be of artificial origin or have artificial
structures on or under the surface - will the world be told by either NASA
or the European Space Agency?
- Ted Twietmeyer
- SOURCE MATERIAL
-  http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/target/Phobos?start=20
-  http://www.bookonmars.info
- Michael Goodspeed
- I'd appreciate if I could add a brief note offering some
clarity on a comment in Ted Twietmeyer's essay, "Who or What Made
Polygonal Features on the Moon?" Ted refers to a "Goodspeed Electrical
Discharge Model." I surely appreciate the reference, but I cannot
lay claim to having originated the theory of electrical cratering on celestial
bodies. Nor can I claim authorship of a "model" of any sort.
As I outline in my essay "The Craters are Electric," as early
as the mid 1960's, an amateur astronomer named Brian Ford raised the possibility
that most of the craters on our moon were carved by cosmic electrical discharge.
(Spaceflight 7, January, 1965). More recently, a number of independent
researchers have continued the investigation, replicating prominent crater
features and patterns through simple experiments, in the lab or even at
home. (Electric craters in the lab are discussed in detail in the aforementioned
- As for me, I'm not a scientist nor really a hands-on
investigator, but rather an (admittedly biased) reporter observing and
framing the issues for the general public.
- I do agree with Ted that polygonal features -- which
have been seen on many planets and moons -- are a permanent Achilles heel
for conventional geologists and planetary scientists, and (from the Electric
Universe perspective) are best explained by the well-documented principles
of electrical engineering and plasma science.
- The Electric Universe theory and its many corollary issues
represents collaboration by many researchers, plasma cosmologists and electrical
engineering experts, not of any one individual. And all owe a great debt
to (still largely unsung) scientific pioneers of the last century, including
Kristian Birkeland, Irving Langmuir, Winston H. Bostwick, Hannes Alfven,
Ralph Juergens, and many others too numerous to list here. For a comprehensive
historical perspective on the Electric Universe and Plasma Universe, replete
with references to many published scientific materials, I suggest readers
visit Ian Tresman's Wikipedia-style http://plasma-universe.com , and/or
Australian researcher Dave Smith's http://plasmaresources.com.
- --Michael Goodspeed