- Hello Jeff - This just gets crazier and crazier. This
is definitely a good set-up for A-H1N1 to meet and join H5N1.
- So, it now appears that H1N1 Swine Flu aka Pandemic Flu
is being found in Turkeys. We know that H5N1 also is found in turkeys.
Let's hope that the two viruses don't meet and recombine into a disaster.
H5N1 brings to the table an ability to kill easily, and H1N1 brings
to the table an ability to spread rapidly, person-to-person.
- INFLUENZA PANDEMIC (H1N1) 2009, ANIMAL HEALTH - CHILE
(VALPARAISO), AVIAN, OIE
- Preliminary genetic study of 1st transmission of A(H1N1)
2009 virus from human to birds.
- During this week, Chile communicated to WHO the 1st isolation
of A(H1N1) swine flu virus in turkeys. The finding was done by the Chilean
farming agency SAG.
- The 1st case in Chile of human A(H1N1) 2009 infection
was confirmed by the Institute of Public Health (national reference laboratory)
on 17 May 2009; from then on, we have reached a total of 12 175 laboratory
confirmed cases with 116 deaths.
- Two days ago, the Institute of Public Health confirmed
the virus finding in 2 private turkey plants in Valparaiso (Chile). These
turkeys were not for consumption but for production of eggs. As with pigs,
there is no risk to people from meat consumption. This situation was detected
only because of behavior changes and lower egg production. There is no
record of previous infection in workers of these 2 farms (3 countries had
previously detected A(H1N1) 2009 virus transmission from humans to pigs).
- Yesterday [22 Aug 2009], the Institute of Public Health
(ISP) analyzed the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the hemmaglutinin
(HA) gene of the viruses of the turkeys in the outbreak. These strains
showed 99.5 to 98.9 percent similarity in nucleotides and amino acids to
the A/California/4/2009 strain. At the same time, they were 100 percent
similar in nucleotides and amino acids to the strains circulating in Chile
in human cases. This week, we will analyze the complete genome, and we
will send the results to ProMED.
- Our point is that for the 1st time, it has been proven
that transmission of the new virus from humans to birds has occurred. This
is a concern vis a vis the possibility that this may happen in Asia or
Africa under conditions of co-infection with H5N1 virus.
- -- Julio Garcia Moreno MD, MSc. Head, Biomedical Department
Instituto de Salud Publica de Chile <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>email@example.com
-  OIE Report On Outbreak In Chile Turkey Farms Date:
21 Aug 2009 Source: OIE WAHID Disease Information 2009; 22(35) [edited]
- Influenza A H1N1, Chile
- Information received on 21 Aug 2009 from Dr Ternicier
Claudio, Jefe Division Proteccion Pecuaria, Servicio Agricola y Ganadero,
Ministerio de Agricultura, Santiago, Chile
- Summary Report type: Immediate notification Start date
23 Jul 2009 Date of 1st confirmation of the event 20 Aug 2009 Report date
21 Aug 2009 Date submitted to OIE 21 Aug 2009 Reason for notification:
- Morbidity 61.4 percent Mortality 0 percent Zoonotic impact:
No Causal agent: Influenza A Virus This event pertains to the whole country
- New outbreaks Summary of outbreaks - Total outbreaks:
- Valparaiso (Las Palmas, Quilpue, Valparaiso; Pucalan,
- Species Birds Susceptible 29 782 Cases 24 337 Deaths
0 Destroyed 0 Slaughtered 0
- Affected Population: The birds are breeding turkeys which
presented a drop from 70 percent to an average of 31 percent and a reduction
in the quality of the shell. Neither respiratory signs nor increased mortality
were observed. Necroscopy of the affected birds showed salpingitis, peritonitis
and an interruption of follicular development. No other lesions were observed.
Samples of embryonated eggs collected from the incubation building gave
negative results with real time PCR. 20 days after the beginning of the
event, a recovery in the laying rate was observed.
- Outbreak 2 (Foco 2) Pucalan, Quillota, Nogales, Valparaiso
- Date of start of the outbreak 29 Jul 2009 Outbreak status
Continuing (or date resolved not provided) Epidemiological unit: Farm
- Species Birds Susceptible 29 772 Cases 12 248 Deaths
0 Destroyed 0 Slaughtered 0
- Affected Population The birds are breeding turkeys showing
an abnormal decrease in laying rate. Neither respiratory signs nor increased
mortality were observed.
- Summary of outbreaks: Total outbreaks: 2 Outbreak statistics
Species: Birds Susceptible 59 554 Cases 36 585 Deaths 0 Destroyed 0 Slaughtered
- Species Birds Apparent morbidity rate 61.43 percent Apparent
mortality rate 0.00 percent Apparent case fatality rate 0.00 percent Proportion
susceptible animals lost* 0.00 percent * Removed from the susceptible population
through death, destruction and/or slaughter
- Epidemiology: Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of
infection - Unknown or inconclusive.
- Epidemiological comments: The affected farms are turkey
breeding premises belonging to the same company, vertically integrated,
where appropriate biosecurity measures are applied.
- Outbreak no. 1 is composed of 5 breeding premises. The
outbreak started in premises no. 1 and through horizontal transmission,
it reached 3 other premises.
- In the outbreak n. 2 of 5 existing sectors are affected
[the meaning of this is unclear. Perhaps: "In outbreak no. 2, 2 of
5 existing sectors are affected" - Mod.LM]
- Prior to the appearance of clinical signs, some birds
were exposed to people showing respiratory symptoms.
- The affected premises were systematically monitored through
serological testing with negative results until 28 Jul 2009. Serotyping
allowed exclusion of the presence of H5 and H7 viruses and allowed confirmation
of the detection of A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus 2009.
- Samples were sent to the Public Health Institute of Chile
(ISP), Ministry of Health. The ISP confirmed the presence of A/H1N1 2009
pandemic influenza virus 2009 using real time PCR. The RT-PCR for seasonal
H1 and H3 influenza gave a negative result. Samples will be sent to the
OIE Reference Laboratory.
- Control measures - Measures applied: Quarantine, Screening,
Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s), Vaccination prohibited,
No treatment of affected animals.
- Measures to be applied - No other measures
- Laboratory name and type: Public Health Institute (National
laboratory) Species Birds Test real-time PCR Test date 20 Aug 2009 Result
- Species Birds Test virus sequencing Test date 21 Aug
2009 Result Positive
- Laboratory name and type: Quarantine Station and Lo Aguirre
Laboratory (National laboratory) Species Birds Test agar-gel immunodiffusion
(AGID) Test date 15 Aug 2009 Result Positive
- Species Birds Test antibody detection ELISA Test date
14 Aug 2009 Result Positive
- Species Birds Test haemagglutination inhibition test
(HIT) Test date 19 Aug 2009 Result Positive
- Species Birds Test neuraminidase inhibition assay Test
date 19 Aug 2009 Result Positive
- Future Reporting The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up
reports will be submitted.
- -- Communicated by several ProMED readers
- The 2 reports taken together advance, to some degree,
our knowledge of H1N1 pandemic potential. Dr. Julio Garcia has most kindly
provided us with preliminary analysis indicating that the virus that infected
the birds is indeed the current novel, pandemic strain of H1N1. ProMED-mail
is very appreciative of Dr. Garcia and the Public Health Institute of Chile's
quick communication, underscoring a central tenet of ProMED-mail, that
rapid sharing of information among the world's emerging disease specialists
is one of the most valuable assets in combating the current or any pandemic
- The 2nd important pieces of new information are quantitative
details on the magnitude of production losses, which then appear to be
the main clinical finding, as neither respiratory signs nor mortality were
observed. However, post mortem lesions affecting the reproductive tract
were observed as well. While the production losses were striking, and the
morbidity was greater than 50 percent, the effect on the grandparent stock
only lasted for some 20 days or so before they appeared to recover, according
to the OIE report. Obviously, the associated economic losses will be significant;
further details from knowledgeable individuals in agriculture would be
- Two clues are revealed as we learn more about this unusual
event in Chile. 1st, the current pandemic strain continues to be, as Jim
Steele would say, adventurous, by moving from humans into turkeys. Secondly,
the H1N1 pandemic virus has not been highly lethal when it comes out of
humans and infects farm animals, since neither swine in Canada nor turkeys
in Chile have exhibited a high mortality rate comparable to the devastation
in farms experiencing H5N1. Overall, this event should serve as a warning
to agricultural and public health sectors to prepare well for the fall
, as the current pandemic influenza virus is active in its ability
to spread across species.
- Finally, Dr. Garcia Moreno's comments about co-circulation
of this virus with H5N1 are insightful, given that we now have further
evidence that this particular H1N1 virus can move into animal populations
without too much clinical disturbance in animal populations. Therefore,
crossing the species appears to occur in a somewhat unobtrusive and, therefore,
potentially unobserved fashion in some parts of the world. This observation
should serve to alert animal health officials in Africa and Asia, where
H5N1 control and surveillance efforts should be intensified. It also underscores
the value of all the hard work in controlling H5N1 done by countries like
Nigeria or by long standing global control programs, which were established
in 2005. The payoff for these programs happens every time an H1N1-infected
human steps onto a poultry farm which could have been harboring H5N1 if
not for the effectiveness of the "on the ground" control program
efforts developed by dedicated local, state, national and international
- Valparaiso and Santiago, in central Chile, can be located
on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at http://healthmap.org/r/00It.
- Patricia A. Doyle DVM, PhD Bus Admin, Tropical Agricultural
Economics Univ of West Indies Please visit my "Emerging Diseases"
message board at: http://www.emergingdisease.org/phpbb/index.php Also my
new website: http://drpdoyle.tripod.com/ Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa
Go with God and in Good Health