Key Role Of Bacteria In AIDS - A New Hypothesis
From Alan Cantwell

This is a new and interesting (and controversial) hypothesis implicating gut BACTERIA and other microbes (carrying HIV genetic information) in the pathogenesis of AIDS. This, of course, challenges HIV as "the sole cause of AIDS." I am not convinced this new hypothesis eliminates the possibility that AIDS/HIV originated as a man-made disease. Nor does it explain how AIDS started in New York City exclusively in gay men. However, from the very beginning of the AIDS epidemic I have reported via medical journal publications that acid-fast BACTERIA were implicated in AIDS. These reports have generally been ignored. Zajak's team has been conducting this AIDS bacterial research at the Cancer Research Institute, in Bratislava, Slovakia.

-- Alan Cantwell, M.D.

Key Role Of Bacteria In AIDS - A New AIDS Hypothesis

By V. Zajac et al.

Despite unquestionable success in the diagnostics and therapy of AIDS, there are many unanswered questions. Without giving the answers to these questions more successful treatment of patients can not be expected. The strong argument for this claim is a fact that it is not possible to stop the global spread of AIDS, especially in Africa and Asia.

It is generally accepted that the retrovirus HIV is the only etiological agent responsible for AIDS and was transferred to humans from monkeys in Africa through random contacts 35 to 50 years ago. In nature there is no evidence of retroviruses transmission between different species. Is HIV the only exception in nature?

Experts accept this claim although it is not sufficiently substantiated. For a few exceptions, such as Duesberg, Rasnick, Crowe and others who form a strong opposition HIV = AIDS dogma. Many of these opponents present a different dogma - that HIV does not exist, or if so, it is harmless element, which is not responsible for AIDS. Like proponents of HIV = AIDS dogma, they have many arguments. Where is the truth?

This situation is challenging for us to fight against AIDS in a more complex manner and to overcome all taboos and dogmas surrounding this disease. In advance, it is necessary to deliberate another potential factors, not only HIV, which may take a part in this disease.

Bacteria and AIDS

One of these factors may be bacteria of intestinal tract. Generally we do not know too much about the latter kingdom in our body, which represents 1014 of living organisms. Fact, that balance between this kingdom and our body is the basis of our existance is underestimate. Today is increase of evidence that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and other mucosal tissue, but not in the blood system are the major place of HIV infection and CD4+T cells loss. HIV-1 has been detected in bowel crypt cells and lamina propria. Since these cells are adjacent to intestinal bacteria and so the idea that bacteria also may participate in the pathogenesis of AIDS, is very timely.

We began with a study of the role of bacteria in cancer disease over 20 years ago. Then we worked on the diagnosis of leukosis in cattle induced by a retrovirus BLV (Bovine Leukemia Virus), belonging to the group of RNA tumor viruses. Following the situation in stables with BLV infected cows, I began to deal with the "heretical" idea that bacteria could be an ideal vector for the transmission of BLV virus. When we found BLV genetic information in bacteria of infected cows this idea started gaining reality. During the internship in the laboratory of prof. F. Wong-Staal, University of San Diego (UCSD, USA) I found the HIV genetic information in AIDS patients bacteria. Gradually, through the techniques - DNA hybridization, PCR, sequencing and Western blotting - found HIV genetic information and protein in patients not only from the U.S. and Slovakia, but in Kenya and Cambodia HIV- positive children.

In our original approach using several molecular genetic techniques we have found HIV-like sequences and HIV-like protein with high homology (up to 90%) with the sequences of HIV / proteins in bacteria and yeast of AIDS patients from USA, Slovakia and HIV positive children from Kenya and Cambodia.

We found that these bacteria are characterized

by a high efficiency to overcome natural body barriers, then intracelularized human cells, particularly immune cells (lymphocytes). The reduction of viral load for 56% after three months treatment of 20 patients with probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 was detected as well. Based on our results and considerations, we came to the following conclusions:

1. HIV is an integral part of the human population since the beginning of our existence. We inherited it from our ancestors.

2. Bacteria and fungi are the natural hosts of HIV genetic information in the form of "virus- like particles" or other extrachromosomal forms.

Objection: if HIV was in our body from our beginning, why did it's emerge just about 25-35 years ago? To answer this question we should go back into the ancient history of humankind. In the past, major epidemics (1346-1700) frequently occurred when there were new patterns of communication and transportation between separately populated areas.This tremendous process, victims of which were many million of humans, was very intensive in Europe, Asia, North America, North Africa. In southern and central Africa, the process was very limited due to the isolation of closed communities. The result of this evolutionary process was "sanitation" of the human population and the associated reduction of pathogenic intestinal bacteria (the bacteria carrying the HIV genetic information) and stabilize the balance between the human body and bacteria.

The balance between two kingdoms was broken in mid-20th-century by application of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, drugs and lifestyle changes - a homo anal sex. Their pathogenic effects, mostly multi-resistant bacteria - including those containing HIV sequences - moved from minority to majority, had intestinal barrier began to continuously attack the immune system and evoke immunodeficiency (AIDS).

Presented hypothesis answer to many until now unanswered questions:
- origin of HIV
- large scale HIV positivity in Africa,
- connection of AIDS with TBC (tuberculosis) in Africa,
- absence of "gold standard" in Africa,
- the presence of HIV reservoirs after antiretroviral therapy,
- atypical course of disease in comparision with other retroviral infections
- the rarity of complete viral particles detection in the material from AIDS patients, but detection of HIV sequences and the HIV proteins (antigens) herein
- high AZT toxicity
- and others.
It shows that the disease is a consequence of the global process of change our intestinal microflora and thereby undirectly refuse the argument that HIV was created in a laboratory and AIDS is actually one of the biological weapon. The hypothesis expressly contradics the dogma presented in peer-reviewed journals, which justified the AIDS pandemic ( a worldwide presence in 35 million HIV positive !) by retrovirus transmission (HIV) in Africa from monkeys to human in the past 35 to 50 years as a result of accidental contacts. And that's good news for Africa.

Our hypothesis open new perspectives in diagnostics and mainly in AIDS therapy, based on elimination of bacteria and yeasts bearing HIV genetics information, what should be not very onerous for patients

A large part of these results were published in scientific journals and is a chapter of the book "Microbes, viruses a parasites in AIDS", which I edited. Our hypothesis based on our results, I presented in Las Vegas (August 20.- 22., 2012) at 2nd World Congress on Virology 2012), where it met with great acclaim.


Zajac V, Stevurková V, Mátelová L, Ujházy E.: Detection of HIV-1 sequences in intestinal bacteria of HIV/AIDS patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2007, 28, 5, 591-595.

Vladimir Zajac, Lenka Matelova, Anna Liskova, Michal Mego, Vladimir Holec, Zuzana Adamcikova, Viola Stevurkova, Andrea Shahum, Vladimir Krcmery. Confirmation of HIV- like sequences in respiratory tract bacteria of Cambodian and Kenyan HIV-positive pediatric patients. Med Sci Monit, 2011; 17(3), 154-158.

Vladimir Zajac, Zuzana Adamcikova, Vladimir Holec, Katarina Hainova, Viola Stevurkova, Lenka Matelova and Vladimir Krcmery: Chapter in a book "Microbes, viruses and parasites in AIDS process" published in INTECH, 2011. P. 375-390. - ISBN 978-953-307-601-0.

International conferences - lectures:

V. Zajac, M. Kovac, S. Ciernikova, M. Mego, P. Rauko, V. Stevurkova, D. Stanekova, M. Mokras : Detection of HIV sequences in colon bacteria of AIDS positive patients. 15th ECCMID, 2 - 5 April 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Vladimir Zajac, Zuzana Adamcikova, Vladimir Holec, Katarina Hainova, Viola Stevurkova, Lenka Wachsmannova: The role of bacteria and yeasts in AIDS. Conferencii Modern Medical Forum, Montreal (Kanada), September 7.-8., 2011.

Zajac V., Hainova K., Mego M., Wachsmannova L., Adamcikova Z., Ciernikova S., Stevurkova V. and Krcmery V.: What is the role of bacteria in AIDS? "2nd World Congress on Virology", Las Vegas (USA), August 20.-23., 2012.

International conferences - posters:
Zajac V., Mego M., Mokras M., Matelova L., Schreiner A., Stevurkova V., Stanekova D.: "The role of bacteria in cancer and AIDS process" Wellcome Trust konferencia "Genomic perspectives to host pathogen interactions" , Hinxton (UK), September 3.-6, 2008.

Zajac V., Mego M., Wachsmannova L., Adamcikova Z., Holec V., Stevurkova V. and Krcmery V.: Detection of proteins homologous with HIV-1 antigens in bacteria of HIV positive patients. Wellcome Trust konferencia Infectious Disease Genomics and Global Health, Cambridge (UK), September 12. -15., 2010.

-------------- Journal Article: Confirmation of HIV-like sequences in respiratory tract bacteria of Cambodian and Kenyan HIV-positive pediatric patients.

Vladimir Zajac, Lenka Matelova, Anna Liskova, Michal Mego, Vladimir Holec,Zuzana Adamcikova, Viola Stevurkova, Andrea Shahum, Vladimir Krcmery

ABSTRACT: Bacteria and yeasts isolated from respiratory tracts of 39 Cambodian and 28 Kenyan HIV-positive children were tested for the presence of HIV-1 sequences. Bacteria and yeasts from the respiratory tract (nose, pharyngeal swabs) were isolated from 39 Cambodian and 28 Kenyan HIV-positive children. Bacte... [more]

Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 02/2011; 17(3):CR154-8. · 1.70 Impact Factor


Detection of HIV-1 sequences in intestinal bacteria of HIV/AIDS patients
Vladimir Zajac 1

Viola Stevurkova 1

Lenka Matelova 1

Eduard Ujhazy 2

1) Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
2) Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

Neuroendocrinol Lett Vol 28 issue 5, 2007

OBJECTIVES: Bacterial DNA isolated from the intestinal tract of 11 American and 30 Slovak HIV/AIDS patients were analyzed by colony and dot blot hybridization assay for HIV-1 specific sequences. Secondly, PCR using primers specific for the HIV-1 gag, pol and env genes for detection of HIV-1 sequences in these DNA were performed. RESULTS: Intestinal bacteria DNA of HIV/AIDS patients hybridized in colony and dot blot hybridization assay for HIV-1 specific sequences. PCR products synthesized on specific primers of HIV-1 gag (115 bp), env (142 bp), pol-env (1484) genes were found to be for more than 90% homologous to the corresponding sequence in HIV-1. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal bacteria of HIV/AIDS patients are bearing sequences for more than 90% identical with those of HIV-1.

DNA intestinal bacteria HIV-1 sequences hybridization PCR

Testing of bacteria isolated from HIV/AIDS patients in experimental models
Vladimir Zajac
Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 27:61-4. 2006

Detection of HIV-1 sequences in intestinal bacteria of HIV/AIDS patients
Vladimir Zajac
Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 28:591-5. 2007

Confirmation of HIV-like sequences in respiratory tract bacteria of Cambodian and Kenyan
HIV-positive pediatric patients
Vladimir Zajac
Department of Cancer Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia

Med Hypotheses. 2008 Nov;71(5):741-8. Epub 2008 Aug 8.

AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

Broxmeyer L, Cantwell A.
C/o Med-America Research, 208-11 Estates Drive, Bayside, NY 11360, USA.


Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between mycoplasma and CWD bacteria is difficult at best and cites Pachas's 1985 study wherein one mycoplasma was actually mistaken for a CWD form of a bacterium closely related to the mycobacteria. It is important to realize that the statement "HIV is the sole cause of AIDS" is just a hypothesis. There are unanswered questions and controversy concerning the role of HIV "as the sole cause of AIDS." And until they are resolved, a cure is not possible. This paper explores the possible role of acid-fast tuberculous mycobacteria as "primary agents" in AIDS.

PMID: 18691828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Alan Cantwell M.D.

author of, AIDS & The Doctors of Death

and Queer Blood



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