Ebola Escape Back To Africa
By Yoichi Shimatsu
grips West Africa as angry Monrovia slum dwellers wreck an ebola quarantine
center in rebellion against the pharmaceutical industry and biowarfare
programs. In a lame attempt to shift the blame for the pandemic onto taxpayers
in Western countries, the corrupt and inept World Health Organization
(WHO) is responding with damage control by sending its publicity staff
to television shows in appeals for more donations.
is out of control with even the WHO admitting that the death toll is far
higher than reported. One bit of news lost in the panic is that American
eco-tourists returning from the war-torn Central African Republic (CAR)
report that a band of 80 gorillas was recently wiped out by a viral outbreak.
essay is the fourth in a series of exposes that has uncovered ebola research
by the pharmaco-military complex in Britain, the US and France. So far,
suspicions of human error as the cause of outbreak are focused on a possible
act of biological warfare in a neocolonialist struggle to control resource-rich
Africa or, alternatively, illegal ebola-antidote testing on humans during
a vaccine campaign involving a major French pharmaceutical company. Fact
is stranger than the fiction of John LeCarre’s novel “The Constant Gardener”
with its theme of illegal drug trials in Africa.
this essay, the birthplace of virology and biological warfare, Germany,
is scrutinized for its relationship to the current contagion. Nazi science
was the origin of virus-centered biowarfare programs in Britain and the
US. Soon after the end of World War II, a committee of Allied weapons-technology
experts known as Project Alsos arranged a reprieve for the Nazi regime’s
top virologists, who were secretly sent to American and British laboratories
under Operation Paperclip. As shown in the evidence presented here, German
pharmaceuticals and the Max Planck Institute are still deeply involved
in biowar virology in secret cooperation with the US military, cloaked
as medical research in microbiology, evolutionary studies and veterinary
to the naive belief that postwar Germany abandoned weapons of mass destruction,
its rebuilt pharmaceutical industry was the first to conduct monkey trials
on an African filovirus similar to ebola, which was named after the city
of Marburg. Just prior to the present West African outbreak, German microbiology
had a role in ebola-focused lab trials on a cohort of chimpanzees at an
NIH primate-testing facility in Louisiana. The New Iberia trials, one
of the last using chimpanzees at a federal-funded laboratory, involved
a German drug company and the US Army’s biowarfare institute.
public sponsor of the vaccine trials was a courageous team of field researchers,
associated with the Max Planck Institute, who struggled mightily for a
vaccine to prevent an imminent extinction of Low Land gorillas in Central
Africa. The science-based strategy to protect wild apes with a potential
vaccine was opposed by a primate-liberation movement led by Brigette Bardot
and Aliette Jamart, sponsors of a project to reintroduce “orphan” lab
animals into the wilds of Africa.
2011 testing for antibodies in primates was fiercely opposed by animal-welfare
advocates Jane Goodall and the Humane Society, then lobbying Congress
for passage of the Great Apes Protection Act. This conflict among primate
experts may have led to the abduction and transfer of an ebola test subject
or its newborn child to a chimpanzee sanctuary in the Guinea uplands,
which was later the epicenter of the West African ebola outbreak in the
ever the road to hell was lined with good intentions, ethical wreckage
litters the highway from a Dixieland bayou to the rain-forest of Upper
Guinea. A comedy of errors turned out to be the grimmest of tragedies
for apes, including ones in trousers.
a contribution to renewed efforts to prevent ebola pandemics, the last
section of this essay lays out information from microbiologists with a
Hong Kong-based medical information team, of which this writer was a part.
The innovative bioscience team provided seminars for Thailand’s top veterinary
experts at the height of the Asian avian influenza crisis. Those discussions
offer penetrating insights on how the ebola virus could be transmitted
between species and factors for why contagions recur in tropical Africa.
solution to the ebola mystery lies not in any wonder drug but in the inter-species
cycle of cross-infection. Without a better understanding of how tropical
diseases are transmitted to wild apes, it will be well nigh impossible
to stop ebola in humans. .
in the Risk
Cajun Chimp Caper arose from the second-greatest disaster suffered by
Congo gorillas, both of which were abetted by the modern drug industry.
The worst impact on once thriving tribes of big apes has been a steady
loss of natural rain-forest habitat due to agricultural encroachment.
ecological imbalance between forest and farm was accelerated by ever-increasing
human immunity to zoonosis (diseases transferred from animals) due to
vaccination. As countryside populations lost their fear of “spirits”,
or pathogens from a modern viewpoint, settlers pushed deeper into the
forests and mountains. Some wildlife researchers correlate ebola outbreaks
with the rising pressure on wildlife habitat from economic activities
of road-laying, deforestation for farming and tourism funded by Western
aid and the consequent expansion of hunting to earn cash.
serious impact on wildlife occurred between 2002 and 2007 with the ebola-caused
deaths of one-third of remaining lowland gorillas in the Central African
nations of Gabon and Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). An estimated 5,000
individuals died in an ebola contagion over just two years.
the Shadow of Man
primatologist Peter Walsh, a California-born and Yale-educated lecturer
at Cambridge and researcher with the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary
Anthropology, the viral outbreak in gorillas was a call to battle against
the lethal virus. His expertise in quantitative anthropology contributed
to the scientific assessment that resulted in two sub-species of gorillas,
Western Lowland and Cross River, being added to the UN list of endangered
are puzzled by the mystery of how the ebola virus can reemerge after decades
of dormancy inside some unknown repository organism or “reservoir”. Every
affected species has been found to be a temporary host for the opportunistic
virus, as is the case for fruit bats and humans. If the reservoir, which
acts as permanent home of ebola, is ever identified, then controls on
that species could eliminate or suppress future outbreaks. Repeated setbacks
in the hunt for a reservoir convinced Walsh that immunization is the only
practical strategy for preventing the extinction of great apes.
the quest for a vaccine defense against ebola, Walsh and his closest associates
formed a non-profit group called Apes Incorporated. The team includes
veterinarian Chris Whittier and Julio Benavides, who challenged conventional
medical opinion about zoonosis by showing that many diseases in humans
are transmitted to animals, and not just vice versa.
Inc. members based their computer modeling of epidemic pathways on field
research in some of the toughest conditions on the planet. Over many years
in hot and humid lowland jungles, they tracked gorilla foraging habits,
while still showing the scientific curiosity to pause and examine other
intriguing behavior like social interactions among fire ants. This hard
experience forced “out-of-the-box thinking” along with realism about raising
funds through a business strategy.
of their ongoing studies was on the affects of tourism, especially so-called
eco-tourism, related to great apes. The soft, cuddly approach of leading
figures in primate conservation, notably Jane Goodall and the late Dian
Fossey, was making gorillas less wild and, worse, completely exposed to
human diseases. (To drive home this point in support of their argument,
many cities would be absent of dogs and cats were it not for rabies vaccine.)
some very convincing quotes from Walsh reveal the stark realities of gorilla
- “The ape conservation community has long been non-interventionist, taking a ‘Garden of Eden’ approach to modern medicine for wild animals, but we ended Eden by destroying habitats and spreading disease.”
- “Half of deaths among chimps and gorillas that live in proximity to humans are from our respiratory viruses. For us it’s a sore throat ; for them it’s death.”
“We need to be pragmatic about saving these animals now before
they are wiped out forever, and vaccination
could be a turning point. But (African national) park
managers are adamant, and rightly so at this
stage, that all vaccines are tested on captive
apes before deployment in the wild. This means access to captive chimpanzees
for vaccine trials.”
the war against extinction, the jungle fighters of Ape Inc. took the next
logical step of planning veterinary trials on captive chimpanzees to test
a prospective ebola vaccine. There is a cautionary tale about zeal. Although
the weapons are similar and the foe sometimes the same, soldiers and mercenaries
are untrustworthy allies for warriors. Prompted by fears of imminent doom,
these Jedi of ecology stepped into the dark side.
Science Revival at Marburg
microbiologists are well acquainted with filoviruses due to the mid-1960s
outbreak of ebola-related Marburg virus in its namesake city, located
near Frankfurt. The reported cause of the outbreak that killed seven people
was infected Ethiopian monkeys called grivets, used in lab experiments
at the Behringwerke facility of Hoechst. The pharmaceutical was prior
to the war a major participant in the wartime IG Farben consortium of
German drug companies.
near simultaneous Marburg virus outbreak in Belgrade, then capital of
the socialist Yugoslavia federation, indicates that the filovirus was
being weaponized by the Federal Republic of Germany and Yugoslavia on
opposite sides of the Cold War. The Marburg virus originated in the Great
Lakes region of East Africa, near the former German colonies of Burundi,
Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Rwanda. The range of the Marburg filovirus,
more recently shifted to Kenya and Uganda, is relatively close to the
Zaire ebola zone.
the University of Marburg and two branches of the Max Planck Institute
became leading centers of microbiology research into filoviruses Marburg
and ebola. No attempt has even made to explain why Hoechst was conducting
a major animal study in filovirus, if not for biowarfare purposes. (note:
Hoechst was an acquisition target by the Rothschild Group and integrated
into Sanofi Pasteur, a player in Part 3 of this series.)
Max Planck Institute (MPI), with its involvement in filovirus research,
has close connections with biotechs and pharmaceuticals involved in ebola
research. Locked doors were thus opened for Walsh’s vaccine proposal.
the Leipzig Zoo pathology lab, Walsh organized a 2007 project with MPI
colleagues to develop a fruit-flavored lozenge as an oral vaccine delivery
method for chimpanzees. Aimed to lure the sweet-tooth of apes, the pill
was created by IDT Biologika, the contraction of Impfstoffwerk
Dessau-Tornau, which produces drugs for farm and companion
creation of an oral delivery method was necessitated by the US Chimpanzee
Health and Protection Act of 2000, which forbids injections or invasive
surgery on lab primates.
pioneering virus research center, IDT’s prewar moniker was the Anhaltien
Serum Institute of Dessau (ASID). German virology was at least a generation
ahead of US and British medical science. Many of the early discoveries
were made in equine fevers at Reims Island, safely isolated in the Greifswald
Bay on the Baltic Sea. Horses were a primary mode of road transport in
the inter-bellum economy when petrochemical production was insufficient
to fuel vast numbers of automobiles and trucks. The Spielberg movie “War
Horse” provides a glimpse of horse power in action.
at the Rockefeller medical institute in Princeton, New Jersey, Dr. Erich
Traub became the SS chief of biowarfare research at Reims, organizing
experiments in viral diseases cholera, hepatitis and anthrax. After the
defeat of Germany in World War II, the island was renamed the Friedrich
Loeffler Institute, after the lab’s founder, but is called by local residents
“Virus Island.” One of top biowarfare researchers at Reims, deputy health
minister Kurt Blome was captured by US Army counter-intelligence officers,
who invited him to resume his research into biotoxins at Fort Detrick,
Maryland, and at the notorious military veterinary lab at Plum Island.
curiously, has recently opened a research branch at the Loeffler Institute
on Reims island. The city of Dessau, location of IDT headquarters, is
best-known for the IG Farben-Bayer laboratory implicated in Nazi chemical-warfare
research. Details of the wartime history of IDT, a subsidiary of the Klocke
Group, has been expunged from the historical record.
next step was to select a candidate vaccine for ebola-infected apes. This
led to the door of Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceutical that produces
drugs for human medication and for animals. Boehringer’s involvement in
ebola research is focused on RNAi, or ribonucleic acid interference, using
virus particles that can trigger immune responses in human cells, a method
similar to the antibody-based approaches of ZMapp.
is another German pharmaceutical whose biowarfare work for the Nazis has
been erased. Its connection to the war effort was indicated by the 1954
hiring of Fritz Ernst Fischer, urgical assistant to Karl Franz Gebhardt
at the Ravensbruck concentration camp. One of the most distinguished physicians
of the Nazi era, Gebhardt refused to treat shrapnel wounds with sulfa
drugs, which figured in the battlefield death of SS field commander Reinhardt
Heydrich. One of the clues to Gebhardt’s refusal was the split between
bacteriology and virology. Gebhardt was firmly in the camp of virus theory.
by an Allied tribunal of heinous medical experiments on prisoners, Gebhardt
died on the gallows. Also found guilty of war crimes, his disciple Fischer
worked in virology at Boehringer Ingelheim until retirement and died peacefully
at age 90. Boehringer kept cordial relations with the US Army then and
Incorporated’s next move was to recruit a top molecular biologist with
deep experience in pathogen-related clinical trials. Educated in immunology
at the University of Mainz, Germany, Dr. Mohammad Javad Aman was the ideal
man for the task. President of Integrated BioTherapeutics (IBT) in Germantown,
Maryland, Aman did a 7-year stint on vaccines for ebola and Marburg at
the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (AMRIID)
at Fort Detrick. After launching IBT, he developed RNAi inhibitors of
ebola for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).
Warm Vs. Cold Hard
Apes Inc., it was a race against time to run vaccine testing on captive
chimps because the Humane Society, with support from Jane Goodall, was
proposing legislation to shut down primate testing in the US. With funding
from Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, the ebola vaccine research in
primates moved ahead.
by his anthropology department at Cambridge University, Walsh turned to
the last federal-funded animal-testing facility not yet shut down by the
US Fish and Wildlife Service under growing public pressure. The Obama
White House was eager to please liberal constituents horrified by a Humane
Society video of chimpanzee lab conditions. The momentum for passage of
the Great Ape Protection Act (GAPA) of 2011 seemed unstoppable until the
revised version was blocked the following year by Oregon Democrat Ron
Wyden who is known to be a “Wall Street senator.”
NIH New Iberia Research Laboratory, on the campus of the University of
Louisiana at Lafayette, was getting ready to move its 100 chimps out of
cages into a luxury retirement home called Chimp Haven. Ape Inc. therefore
had to move quickly.
chimpanzee trials were conducted by Dr. Amad and his colleagues Kelly
Warfield and Hong Vu (both former Army biowarfare researchers) at Integrated
BioTherapeutics. The biowarfare research team from Biosafety Lab Level
4 at Fort Detrick-based USAMRIID included: Gene Olinger, Jr., Mary Beth
Kasda and Julia Biggins.
leading ebola expert, Olinger had developed the MB003 antibody and was
participating in an ongoing 10-year study by USAMRIID on the monoclonal
antibody (Mab) cocktail called ZMapp, which was famously rushed to missionary
doctor Kent Brantly. (Of the four known recipients, only the two missionary
doctors survived while the Spanish priest and Saudi tourist died, resulting
in a strike-out record of 50 percent.)
Diego-based Mapp BioPharmaceutical is headed by microbiologist Larry Zeitlin,
who came out of Epicyte-Biolex, a company that researched the production
of human drugs inside plants. ZMapp is produced inside genetically modified
tobacco plants. Linked to Monsanto, Epicyte-Biolex conducted research
on the sterilization of sperm. It happens that ebola virus is concentrated
in primate-human sperm. The African fears of genocide campaign involving
ebola does have a scientific basis.
with Army researchers nestled inside the Apes Inc. vaccine project, the
NIH, press releases announced the chimpanzee trials involved “virus-like
particles” (VLS), when in fact the protein coat of the filament-shaped
virus was used. Through an electron microscope, the sample looks like
a hollow tube with speckles, many of them used to seek out docking points
on host cells and to insert viral RNA.
as claimed, only the protein coat were introduced without the virus RNA
strands, the lab chimpanzees could not have been infected with ebola.
However there were four points of vulnerability to transmission of an
intact ebola virus, including: accidental infection from gorilla stool
samples gathered by Apes Inc.; an undetected ebola virus in the VLS batch;
and deliberate use of ebola in some of the primates in a covert Army experiment.
fourth route is the most probable, however, cross-infection from ebola-injected
lab mice used in the latter part of the experiment. The antibodies from
the New Iberia apes were collected, isolated and then injected into ebola-infected
mice. Researchers who injected the mice could have inadvertently carried
the virus back to the primate center.
by accident or design, ebola was possibly spread to captive chimpanzees,
how then could the virus make its way across the Atlantic Ocean back to
Rights, Science Wrongs
introduction of Great Apes Protection Act to Congress in 2011 put militant
animal-rights activists on good behavior as a public-relations ploy. Over
past decades, reckless lab break-ins to release animals risked the escape
of contagious diseases into wildlife and pets, not to mention the human
populations of North America and Europe. Threats against the lives of
researchers, including an attempted car bombing, were made by People for
the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and various “animal liberation”
new Chimpazee Haven, a retirement home for lab primates, was therefore
a tempting target for kinder, gentler animal abductions by the militant
defenders of primates funded by celebrities like Brigette Bardot, who
supports also Wildlife SOS and Projet Primates, both of which provide
refuges for orphaned monkeys. Aliette Jamart, a French businesswoman residing
in the Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) is an advocate for freeing captive
chimpanzees confiscated from bushmeat hunters.
chimpanzees born from at least one parent in the NIH-Army vaccine trials
at New Iberia would have been eyed for unlawful“adoption”. The timing
between the closure of the New Iberia primate labs allowed for the birth
of so-called “orphan” chimpanzees before the outbreak.
reintroduction of captive chimpanzees are done at the Chimpanzee Conservation
Center (CCC) inside the Haut Niger National Park, near Faranah, Guinea.
The CCC is funded by the Brigette Bardot Foundation.Faranah prefecture
of Guinea was one of two of the earliest outbreak zones in West Africa
in December 2013, and the first site mentioned by many local experts.
a more developed region on the border with Sierra Leone, has a large hospital
and, therefore, a better reporting system, A New York Times article by
Denise Grady and Sheri Fink claim that Gueckedou was the site of Patient
Zero, a 2-year-old girl who died on December 6, 2013. The death of so
young a child excludes primate meat as the probable source of ebola. Fruit,
contaminated by infected primates, is the more probable cause.
however, is more convincing epicenter. Teeming with released chimpanzees,
t is located on the headwaters of the Niger River, which winds eastward
across West Africa before passing through Nigeria to reach the Atlantic.
Gueckedou sits on the next tributary just downstream from Faranah. It
is therefore physically possible for ebola to have been transmitted by
migrating apes, fruit collectors or bushmeat hunters to Gueckedou.
FBI investigation into the acquisition methods for “orphan” primates by
Projet Primates in France and the US is urgently required to determine
whether reintroduction programs were the pathway for Zaire ebola to enter
Guinea. Worsening her case as a suspect, Bardot has encouraged activists
to join her self-righteous international network of smugglers under the
cover of a charity, which probably has done more harm than good for wild
apes, if indeed ebola was released from lab animals into the wilds of
Bardot flaunts her disregard of the basic principal that human welfare
has ethical precedent over beasts, so long as casual cruelty is not committed.
It can only be hoped that the star of “And God Created Woman” is not guilty
of the horrific deaths of more than 1,000 fellow human beings and the
spread of ebola into the wild primate population.
biology has been desperately searching for the missing chapter of the
ebola story known as the “reservoir”. The virus opportunistically infects
great apes (which includes homo sapiens) and fruit bats. The reservoir,
or natural home of ebola virus during its many years of dormancy, has
never been discovered. The failure to identify the permanent host is probably
because biologists have been searching in the wrong place, among mammals,
reptiles and even insects.
missing link is also a question for research on avian influenza, which
crosses over between infected birds, pigs and humans without establishing
a permanent home in any of these temporary hosts. The mystery of the reservoir
was cracked in the 2004 Asian bird flu crisis, when a team of microbiologists,
herbal-therapy experts and a chemical engineer visited the pathology laboratory
of one of the world’s biggest poultry producers.
a scary lab space dominated by large freezers stuffed with the frozen
carcasses of chickens that had died of bird flu, the corporate vice president
fired the first and quite unexpected question: “What does chlorinated
water have to do with bird flu?”
hesitation our chief microbiologist, who has done research for NIH, CDC
and other major institutes, shot back with the following answer. “The
virus travels between migratory fowl to chickens inside of a one-cell
host (the reservoir). It can lay dormant (as a replicon) for years inside
that host, which is usually a flagellate. When the reservoir microorganism
comes into contact with chlorinated water, as for example in a farm’s
drinking water supply, the flagellate starts to die because its cell membrane
disintegrates. In response, the virion’s RNA escapes through the holes
in the cell membrane, becoming stretched like an elastic band on its way
happens as the virus escapes into chorinated water, bits of the RNA are
often broken off before a new “skin” or covering can be generated. In
other words, the virus mutates. This stress on the virus causes it to
become more active and more contagious because it must find a temporary
host. The escapee virus has no intention to kill us or even stay inside
us, but only exploits our cells in this emergency in order to replicate
itself. Unfortunately, the host does not always survive. If every one
of the hosts dies as a result of infection, the virus will find itself
at a dead end. Therefore, after the early phase of a contagion, viruses
will mutate back to a less harmful form after entering a reservoir.”
this forensic advice, the Thai poultry industry ended the bird flu pandemic
by filtering water instead of chlorinating it.)
ducks and pigs share the same river or bog, it is easy to identify the
medium of the flagellate/reservoir to be fresh water. What could be the
medium for the reservoir microorganism for ebola? The problem is that
most mammals in the African rain-forest spend most of their time not on
the ground or lakeside but up in the canopy or tree tops.
clue lies in existing research findings from several areas, including:
the feeding habits of the Egyptian rosette, more commonly known as the
African fruit bat; and the Apes Inc. field study that shows gorillas can
transmit ebola through half-eaten fruit on wild trees.
answer is, therefore, fruit, and probably the flowering system and sap
of fruit-bearing trees. Wild fruit and tree sap happen to be the host
of flagellates known as trypanosomatids. Different
types of these tree-inhabiting flagellates inhabit four different arbol
regions: some in fruit and flowers, and others is latex sap or palm juice.
Flagellates are the preferred microoganism for filamentous viruses like
ebola due to their motility, or ability of spontaneous move, collecting
new raw materials or “food” for the virus to cherry-pick and by providing
a means of escape.
to transfer the example of chlorine as a source of stress in fresh water,
the sweeter parts of trees can be affected by a wide range of impacts
from drought, forest fires, insect infestations, fungal infections and
other plant diseases. When confronted by an increasingly hostile environment,
the flagellates enter into death throes.
long tubular filoviruses inside the dying flagellate then shed their skins
or containers. The seven long strands of RNA separate to slip out through
different holes. To complete their escape, each strand breaks off at the
rear. Outside, in the fruit pulp or the sap, the seven strands regroup
and then form a new skin. The biological term for a virus that nestled
inside a microorganism is a “phage”, as in bacteriophage.
urgent need of a safe medium, the escaped and unprotected viruses are
sucked up inside the gut of a visiting fruit bat while it gorges. The
bat then flies off to other trees, and deposits the viral load as guano.
The virus, if lucky, finds a new reservoir at another grove of trees.
an ape, hairy or alternatively clad in fibers, happens to nibble on infected
fruit or sips the palm toddy, the bipeds can suffer a tragic fate, ending
up as fertilizer on the forest floor or a pile of ashes in town.
the larger biological community, viruses benefit life-forms by making
mistakes when its RNA is reconfigured. The rewriting of RNA then results
in changes in plant or animal DNA, driving the evolution of species. That
is another and longer story.
it is impossible to directly destroy flagellates without potentially disastrous
consequences to the environment, what can be done to knock out ebola at
the source? If its reservoir is found in the figs of te ficus family,
nothing can be done short of leveling the rain-forest. The reservoir microorganism
is probably not inside fig tree due to the fruit’s powerful enzymes and
the overwhelming presence of yeast, which crowds out flagellates from
access to sugar.
instead, the flagellate’s host tree happens to be a relatively scarce
species, it can be cut down inside ape sanctuaries and around villages.
No reservoir, no trypanosomatid, no ebola, it’s
that simple. Long Live the Planet of the Apes.
This writer later conveyed the facts about the viral-promoting aspects
of chlorinated water to WHO officials, who showed absolutely no interest
in such analysis. In their conventional viewpoint, chlorine is sacrosanct
as the main method for sterilization of water and hospital rooms worldwide.
The WHO shipments of vast amounts of chlorine to Africa could be promoting
viral mutation and consequent infections rather than suppressing the epidemic.
The first modern outbreak of Zaire ebola, as discovered by Peter Piot
and his colleagues, was near Bumba, the terminus of a rail line, where
the water supply was chlorinated and the local Catholic clinic used chlorine
to sterilize its facilities. The conclusion is simple: water should instead
be treated with filtration, reverse osmosis and nano-tech photocyde to
lower the probability of viral outbreaks.
the next installment of this series on ebola, the role of Monsanto in
RNAi research in virology, including ebola, and the undisclosed risks
of this new type of genetic modification, will be examined.
Yoichi Shimatsu, a Thailand-based science writer and environmental consultant, organized a team of microbiology experts who provide innovative responses to the SARS and avian influenza outbreak.
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