James Jesus Angleton -
Deputy Director of Counter
Intelligence & Guardian of The
CIA's Greatest Secret
By Timothy S. Cooper <>
Private Investigator - Copyright 2000
James Jesus Angleton was born on 9 December, 1917, in Boise, Idaho, to NCR businessman and OSS Colonel James Hugh Angleton, and Mexican born Carmen Mercedes Moreno. Upon Graduation from Yale in 1941, Angleton moved to Harvard Law School where he met his future wife Cicely d'Autremont of Duluth, Minnesota. Inducted into the Army on 19 March, 1943, Angleton was recruited into the OSS in August through the efforts of Angleton's father and Norman Pearson, his old English professor from Yale who was, at that time, head of the OSS Counter Intelligence division in London.(1)
James Angleton was assigned the Rome desk after Italy's capitulation to the Allies and was made a OSS Lieutenant who ran CI activities that included such countries as Austria, Germany, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Switzerland. As part of OSS operations in the European Theatre of Operations, Angleton mastered the arts of "black" propaganda and "playback" that is, the method of reading the effectiveness of one's own disinformation on the enemy. In 1944, Angleton was given charge of the OSS Special Counterintelligence Unit Z made up of U.S. and British agents and was the youngest member of X-2 and was the only American member that was allowed access to the top secret British ULTRA code breaking intelligence. After the war, Angleton was promoted to captain and received the Legion of Merit from the U.S. Army which cited him for successfully apprehending over a thousand enemy intelligence agents. He was also decorated by the Italian government and was awarded the Order of the Crown of Italy, the Order of Malta-Cross of Malta, and the Italian War Cross for Merit. In October 1945, President Truman dissolved the OSS and had all research and analysis units moved to the State Department and operational units to the War Department and were re-designated as Strategic Services Unit. Angleton stayed on in the SSU in Rome and became the vital station chief in charge of the 2677 Regiment which made Angleton the senior U.S. intelligence officer Italy until it became the Central Intelligence Group, forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency.(2)
Angleton's war experience in counterintelligence operations had affected him to the extent that he became absorbed into the 'hall of mirrors' world of intelligence and refused to leave the service after much insistence and disappointment of his father. James would pour over the many CI files he had amassed while in Italy and was forever changed by the intrigue and the possibilities of a career in the CIG. In the summer of 1947 Angleton returned to the United States to live in Tucson, Arizona, to be with his wife and family, but his love for the service was overpowering and on 30 December, 1947, he was hired by the CIA as a senior aide to the director of the Office of Special Operations (OSO).(3) It was during this period that Army G-2 and other intelligence agencies were trying to crack the Soviet VENONA code used by espionage agents operating in the United States sending back sensitive information regarding the Manhattan Project based at Los Alamos, New Mexico, and it is possible that Angleton was on special assignment prior to officially reporting to OSO who had the responsibility of running counterespionage operations.(4)
Angleton's primary mission in OSO included overseeing a classified component that operated espionage and counterespionage activities abroad and read all sensitive material coming across his desk and passed them back to OSO operators in countries were CIA had interests. In 1949, Angleton had moved up the chain of command within OSO and held a GS-15 position. Angleton developed a philosophy that "If you control counterintelligence, you control the intelligence service" and quickly realized the significance of the B-29 detection of Joe-1, the Soviet's first atomic weapon detonation in August 1949 and Angleton knew the technology required by the Soviets was not home grown, but the product of espionage and immediately set out to discover who the moles were that passed on America's most guarded secret to Moscow. As with all covert actions, counterintelligence operated without specific mentioning in the National Security Act of 1947 and Angleton set out to acquire information of the most guarded secret of all.
Aside from the technology theft of atomic secrets, the most guarded secret within the CIA was the scientific and technical information regarding new weapons developments and the planned use of a new generation of thermal nuclear weapons and high altitude reconnaissance platforms to spy on countries hostile to United States strategic interests. One of the technical secrets of the United States was the study and transfer of advanced electronics gleaned from Air Force studies of unconventional aircraft and missile research carried on at several AEC facilities and proving grounds. The FBI and the CIA were aware of Soviet espionage rings operating in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom whose main task was providing any and all technical and scientific information on advanced technologies which would provide an advantage to the Soviet Union in the event another world war would break out.
By 1949, military intelligence authorities had classified the "flying saucer" phenomenon as Top Secret and Army CIC had passed on information that the Soviets may have developed saucer-shaped aerial weapons capable of delivering atomic bombs or dissipating radioactive materials over NATO countries as a stopgap measure to make up for the nonexistent nuclear weapons arsenal. In early 1947, the nonexistent nuclear arsenal in the United States was a closely guarded secret as well and no doubt this fact set in motion the nuclear arms race which terrified Angleton. OSO was probably aware of Soviet knowledge of the bomb gap existing within both superpowers and the flying saucer invasion of the United States which crossed Angleton's desk put a scare into his psyche which is reflected in a credo he shared with other OSO staff members: "You who believe or half believe, I can say this now, that I do believe in the spirit of Christ and the life everlasting, and in this turbulent social system which struggles sometimes blindly to preserve the right to freedom and expression of spirit. "In the name of Jesus Christ I leave you."
After General Walter B. Smith was appointed as DCI, Angleton continued on as OSO Staff A (foreign intelligence operations) inside the CIA's clandestine division. In 1951, he was given the all important Israeli desk which he held tight control for twenty years because it was a source of vital Soviet information in the Middle East. As more and more UFO (5) sighting reports made their way to CIA headquarters, unevaluated reports were forwarded to counterintelligence when the locations were identified as coming from Soviet bloc countries. During this period, Angleton made good liaisons with FBI contacts who were equally concerned with protecting vital atomic research facilities and no doubt many domestic reports were read by Angleton as they came across his desk in the "L" Building across the Lincoln Memorial. When Smith was coaxed away from his power base as DCI, Allen Dulles, Angleton's friend form the OSS days became the new DCI and in late 1954, promoted Angleton to the position of deputy director and Chief of Counterintelligence with direct access to Dulles and all foreign UFO intelligence from the Intelligence Advisory Committee who had been established to look into national security implications involving the UFO phenomena.(6) In order to cement Angleton's counterintelligence charter together, General James H. Doolittle was commissioned by Dulles to conduct an outside survey of CIA counterintelligence operations and concluded that the CIA was loosing ground to the KGB and recommended that more stringent and ruthless measures be taken against Soviet penetration. Dulles endorsed the Doolittle Report by ordering a more powerful tool to stop and interdict the moles within the CIA and he personally chose Angleton to head the CI Staff. Perhaps this is why foreign and domestic UFO sighting reports diminished shortly afterwards.
During Dulles' tenure as DCI from 1953 to 1961 (the longest in CIA histroy), Angleton enjoyed a privileged position not shared by other directors despite the fact that Angleton reported to the Deputy Director of Operations (DDO) and on many occasions bugged the phones and residences of high ranking U.S. government officials and foreign dignitaries with Dulles' approval and over the objection of the DDO. If the situation called for it, Angleton could go around proper channels for acquiring personal data on anyone within the CIA and other agencies which was clearly outside of CIA charter and violated FBI jurisdiction. As the new head of CI, Angleton had to organize a staff, write the rules, and oversee all clandestine operations aimed at Soviet military and security organs of the GRU and KGB.(7) The CI Staff was primarily tasked with preventing penetrations at home and abroad and protecting CIA operations through careful research and analysis of all incoming intelligence reports. By keeping the most vital and sensitive files to himself, Angleton became a storehouse of secrets which helped him consolidate his power base. Officially, Angleton was allowed access to everyone's personnel, operational, and communications files within the CIA and reviewed all proposed and active operations and the approval of recruitment of agent assets. This did not engender trust nor cooperation and Angleton did not concern himself nor his staff with such intrusions. One of Angleton's former Chief of Operations, "Scotty" Miller, expressed the environment in which CI Staff operated as one of a "watchdog" snooping around to sniff out either Soviet deception or manipulation.
Among all the controversial documents leaked to the public in the last twenty years regarding state secrets and the UFO phenomena is the fantastic revelations of the CIA's unacknowledged MJ MAJESTIC TWELVE files disclosing the most guarded of all classified subjects-extraterrestrial life forms and their technologies.(8)
In order to secure this knowledge and prevent foreign countries from learning this vital secret and get an edge on the United States, President Harry S. Truman signed a finding that basically said that no one (including a chief executive) was to be in possession of, or disclose the finding without a "need to know" clearance which was above Top Secret.(9) The directive was secretly implemented without the consent or knowledge of the Congress and concealed by the wording of the National Security Act of 1947 which prohibits disclosing classified matters without presidential approval and prior agreement by the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency as amended in later national security acts. Knowledge of the finding was limited to only a select few within the intelligence and scientific community of the government and as long as the secret remained unresolved, there would be no official acknowledgement. The only official study program Project BLUE BOOK was taken over by the CIA in 1953 as a public experiment and used as a debunking tool to discount the extraterrestrial reality and possibly to quash any attempts by the KGB and GRU to glean any technological or defense secrets from the study.
Like the Manhattan Project, MJ MAJESTIC TWELVE or MJ-12 (as used in some leaked documents) was a joint government/military/private sector undertaking that encompassed every facet of national security functions and the CIA was the premiere intelligence agency tasked with the first line of defense of the United States during the 55-year Cold War between the Capitalist West and the Communist East worlds. When Angleton assumed his throne as Chief of Counterintelligence, no doubt that Truman's directive was the most excellent and inviting instrument to carry on his mole hunt career within the CIA against the KGB and GRU. MJ MAJESTIC TWELVE enjoyed greater protection than that of the hydrogen bomb program of the early 1950's and with that, the Soviets were driven to not only penetrate the secrets of the H-bomb program itself, but the ultimate prize that lay scattered throughout the maximum security research facilities of the U.S. Government located in the Southwest and Eastern United States. The shocking truth of the Soviet atomic weapons espionage program called ENORMOUS had dealt a tremendous blow to U.S. and British security when it was learned that British diplomats operating within the State Department and American Army technicians at Los Alamos National Laboratories had not only supplied blueprints and materials to their KGB handlers in New York for the atomic bomb, but stole the proposed plans for the hydrogen bomb as well and left security officials guessing what else did the Soviet spies steal from under their noses.(10)
As far as we know, there was no successful penetration by KGB or GRU agents into the CIA's UFO program due in large part by the disgraceful and unlawful actions taken by Angleton's CI Staff. After the fallout from the Burgess-MacLean-Phibly defections and the execution of the Rosenbergs, Angleton tightened the security and dedicated himself fully to the safeguarding of what secrets that still alluded the Soviets and embarked on a vicious mole hunt that would almost paralyze the CIA until his departure in 1974.
During the Eisenhower Administration the CIA was at its apex in covert operations piling up one success after another where cores of Soviet moles were detected and sent home to Moscow. Comments from the White House were nil when it came to the UFO problem though the supposed meeting of extraterrestrials and Eisenhower in 1954 was given some publicity, it was largely discounted in the press though some had tried to connect Eisenhower's heart attack with the meeting, national magazines and the media were downplaying the UFO sightings here and abroad as part of a cold war hysteria that accompanied the "duck and cover" scare that seemed to grip the nation. No real problems popped up until the 1960 presidential elections when Democratic presidential candidate Senator John F. Kennedy accused the Republican incumbent President Eisenhower of allowing a "missile gap" to exist and charged that the United States was getting to close to the Soviet Union through détente'.
Soon after Kennedy became president, he began to needle the CIA for information on UFO's (11) which was unnerving at the outset to Allen Dulles after he was burned on the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Castro's communist enslaved island of Cuba in April 1961. The once cordial relationship that had existed fell apart and Dulles knew his time as DCI was short.(12) Knowing the explicit instructions contained in the 24 September, 1947 Truman directive prohibits the DCI from making disclosures to a chief executive who obviously did not have a "need to know" clearance would not only compromise the CIA, but the lengthy and costly UFO program deemed so necessary to national security by all involved, simply could not be jeopardized for any one, even the President of the United States. Knowing the character of Allen Dulles and James Angleton, I can only speculate as to what kind of response Kennedy got. According to the DCI Top Secret/MJ 12 document, it leaves no doubt that Dulles was not going to cooperate with Kennedy's request and forwarded it to Angleton for consideration and feedback. MJ MAJESTIC TWELVE included spin-off projects that were obviously equally sensitive activities of the CIA such as PARASITE, PARHELION, ENVIRO, PSYOP, GREEN, SPIKE, and HOUSE CLEANING. Other sensitive and covert programs could be affected as well, such as MK ULTRA, ARTICHOKE and DOMESTIC which all appear to have been valid projects associated with MJ MAJESTIC TWELVE. The full implications of the above are not clear at present but it is obvious that the other projects were held in readiness for some kind of mass indoctrination and deception undertaking in a national crisis.
The strain mounted on the CIA by Kennedy was reaching a flash point of wills and with the Noresenko affair(13) driving Angleton to obsession, a UFO leak crisis brought new strains on Angleton as he had learned that Hollywood screen star Marilyn Monroe's phone conversation with a New York art dealer(14) discussing Kennedy's secret visit to an undisclosed military base to see alien artifacts and her disdain over the soured relationship she had endured with President Kennedy and his brother, the United States Attorney General had been recorded by CIA domestic electronic surveillance experts. Since 1955, Monroe had been under surveillance by the CIA and the FBI had maintained a security dossier on her because of her marriage with a well known American writer who was suspected of having communist affiliations and her trip to Russia and the press coverage she received while she was there.(15) The wire tap report also mentions nationally recognized New York syndicated reporter Dorothy Kilgallen as having conversations with Monroe regarding the Roswell UFO crash of 1947 and President Kennedy's politically motivated NASA Apollo moon program. Dorothy Kilgallen made headlines in 1955 when she disclosed a private conversation with a British cabinet official that UFOs are real and that the U.S. and British authorities considered the matter as the highest importance. The significance of the wire tap has to do with the fact that Monroe was murdered the following day in her Brentwood condo. According to internationally recognized private investigator and director of the Nick Harris Detective Agency, Milo Speriglio, Monroe was the victim of a national security management hit by the CIA and the mob.(16) The suggestion that somehow the CIA was involved in a domestic murder of an American citizen is not too far fetched when considering the past abuses coming from Angleton's CI program of 'absolute security at any cost' philosophy. Whether Angleton authorized the hit is not known, but the modus operandi of the way her body was found and moved around and the fashion in which the autopsy records were changed to reflect suicide and the theft of her secret red dairy one day after her autopsy is similar to the past methods used by Angleton's covert CIA Counterintelligence operators.
The final straw for Angleton came when President Kennedy fired off a top secret memorandum to him outlining a previous discussion concerning a classification review of all CIA UFO files that could affect national security. Dated 12 November, 1963, just ten days before he would be gunned down in the streets of Dallas, Texas, Kennedy informed Angleton(17) that we was setting things in motion to actually share sensitive CIA UFO intelligence data with the Russians through the director of NASA.(18) This request was made on the same day he requested James Webb(19) to begin Kennedy's peace overture to the Russians via joint space exploration. Webb, being a board member of the intelligence community most likely interpreted Kennedy's program to mean the sharing of classified UFO data under which the current directive forbid. In Kennedy's top secret memorandum(20) he outlined for Angleton specific items he wished to have disclosed to Webb, such as "[to] have the high threat cases reviewed with the purpose of identification of bona fide as opposed to the classified CIA and USAF sources."(21) And, "that we make a clear distinction between the known and unknowns in the event the Soviets try to mistake our extended cooperation as a cover for intelligence gathering of their defense and space programs."(22) Finally, Kennedy wanted Angleton to "arrange a program of data sharing with NASA mission directors in their defensive responsibilities."(23) This was unprecedented and totally unacceptable to Angleton and the CIA ! Here Kennedy was requesting the Central Intelligence Agency, the agency he swore he would "break into a thousand pieces" to just hand over the most guarded secret-ever! This memo was passed on to William Colby(24) who indicated to someone in Angleton's staff in a hand written note that says, "Response from Colby, Angleton has MJ directive" and is dated November 20, 1963, just two days before Kennedy dies. It seems that Kennedy's request bounced around from Angleton's desk possibly seeking consensus on the request or passing the buck back to Angleton. In either case, it was a hot potato for which Angleton had to deal with. It is also significant that Kennedy's NSAM No. 271 was the last coming from Kennedy's desk just before he left Washington for Dallas. What the real significance is was buried somewhere within the CIA and Angleton spent many a day trying to figure out who ordered Kennedy's execution. Was Angleton set up, or did he unintentionally supply the needed ingredient for the murder of the century? In either case, the secret remained safe.
One of the few former CIA officers to speak publicly on the Kennedy assassination and the UFO secret is Victor Marchetti, who at one time was Assistant to the Deputy for Plans and Operations under DCI William Colby. In a rare interview with Second Look magazine in 1979, Marchetti, author of the sensational book Cult of Intelligence which was vetted and censored by the CIA prior to publication (the only book to include the redacted portions within the text), made some interesting observations regarding the CIA's UFO intelligence gathering program and why the subject is not open for discussion. In a introduction piece for his web site Robert Collins, a retired air force intelligence officer produced an insightful forward for Marchetti in which Marchetti said: "My theory is that we have, indeed, been contacted-perhaps even visited-by extraterrestrial beings, and that the U.S. Government, in collusion with other national powers of the Earth, is determined to keep this information from the general public." Marchetti alluded to "rumors" at the highest levels within the CIA that the NSA has information as well and must be kept away from public viewing. We know now that the NSA does have sensitive COMINT files ,that, for reasons of national security cannot disclose. One of these NSA files that Marchetti speaks of might be the NSA intercept of Kennedy's phone conversation with Khrushchev dated 12 November, 1963, in which Kennedy spoke of a "situation that affects both our countries and the world," and "a problem that we share in common." It is believed that the UFO problem became a national security item when President Truman authorized the covert establishment of the National Security Agency whose primary responsibility bordered on "special activities" perhaps as outlined in an alleged Intelligence Estimate prepared by national security officials on 30 September, 1947, in which one of the concerns stated that "what we are up against is controlled by intelligent operators" and that "these objects are real and not illusionary." It is not surprising that in 1968, a NSA employee drafted a significant analysis of the intelligence community's ambivalence toward the UFO camouflage and warned of dire consequences unless the defense establishment wakes up and recognizes the danger these phenomena pose in the nuclear age.
On a final note, the legend of James Jesus Angleton and his "wilderness of mirrors" as he often referred to his daunting task of protecting vital state secrets faded into obscurity on 11 May, 1987 and with him the secret that would emerge almost precisely the day he died. Perhaps Jim was not the real bad guy in the counterintelligence game. Perhaps, he was its victim.
1. September 25, 1943 OSS memo released through the FOIA in September 1989.
2. U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Final report, Book VI, April 23, 1976, pp. 154-55.
3. JJA personal records. Angleton took a seven-month leave of absence to remain in Tucson, Arizona for unspecified reasons not substantiated by the need to be with his wife and family as is believed by other writers regarding Angleton's absence from CIA Washington headquarters during May through December 1947; COLD WARRIOR JAMES JESUS ANGLETON: THE CIA'S MASTER SPY CATCHER by Tom Mangold, Touchstone Book published by Simon & Schuster, 1991, p. 361.
4. The National Security Council on December 12, 1947, had adopted measures to counter the espionage and counterespionage threat as specified in NSCID 1 and later amended in NSCID 5 that authorized the Director of Central Intelligence to "conduct all organized Federal espionage and counterespionage operations." According to CIA Historian Arthur B. Darling, atomic weapons research became an overriding issue and coordination with the Office of Scientific Research and Development with the AEC through CIA consultant Dr. H.P. Robertson through General Vandenberg's directive containing an agreement between Dr. Vannevar Bush which facilitated the transfer of Manhattan Engineering District files to the Director of Central Intelligence for proper collection of foreign atomic energy research. Secret OSO activities in this area was not allowed to fall into administrative control of the AEC nor FBI which Vandenberg thought should remain within CIA intelligence operations; THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY: AN INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT TO 1950 by Arthur B. Darling, Penn State Press, 1990, pp. 197-239.
5. The term U.F.O. as defined by Air Force intelligence directives is used here to reflect unconventional aircraft and missiles, not interplanetary spacecraft.
6. CIA FOIA response letter dated March 26, 1976, to July 14, 1975 FOIA request made by Ground Saucer Watch of Phoenix, Arizona, in which it stated that the NSC tasked the CIA a requirement to determine the actual UFO threat. The CIA responded through the Office of Scientific Intelligence by creating the Intelligence Advisory Committee to study the threat aspects. Military members of the IAC fought vigorously to maintain participation in areas relating to AEC intelligence collection and the Joint Chiefs of Staff represented by General Todd (who is mentioned in a FBI memo regarding JSC ignorance of flying saucer data in 1947) was at odds with the CIA about duplication of efforts by the Military Intelligence Division in producing UFO intelligence data for the IAC; THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY: AN INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT TO 1950 by Arthur B. Darling, PENN STATE PRESS, 1990, pp. 349-356.
7. The KGB-the Committee for State Security was a non-military arm of the Soviet Intelligence Service. The GRU was the military arm. The KGB received its title in 1954. When mentioning the Russian Intelligence Service, KGB and GRU are referenced generically to include both organizations.
8. This remarkable fact is substantiated in the mistakenly downgraded Top Secret Canadian Department of Transport Intra-Department Correspondence from Wilbert B. Smith to Dr. Robert I. Sarbacher, an American physicist and Science Consultant in the U.S. Defense Department's Research and Development Board and a member of the Guidance & Control Panel. Dated 21 November, 1950, Smith acknowledged that UFO studies were "considered by the United States authorities to be of tremendous significance" and that the "matter is the most classifies subject in the United States Government, rating higher than the H-bomb."
9. September 24, 1947 Top Secret/MAJIC EYES ONLY Project WHITE HOT Preliminary Estimate in Five Parts (Unacknowledged by the U.S. Government); THE MAJESTIC DOCUMENTS by Dr. Robert M. Wood, Ph.D. and Ryan S. Wood, Wood & Wood Enterprises, 1998, pp. 43-81.
10. 25 November, 1955 Top Secret memorandum from Rear Admiral Edwin T. Layton, Deputy Director for Intelligence, The Joint Staff, to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, ref. J.C.S. 1712/5. This report deals with the Burgess-MacLean defection after it was learned that sensitive weapons research information had been sent to Moscow through diplomatic means and the CIA was informed of the defection which Angleton was devastated to learn that Kim Philby, a long standing friend of British intelligence was part of the spy ring.
11. Unacknowledged June 28, 1961 Top Secret National Security Memorandum from President John F. Kennedy to Allen Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence, Subject: Review of MJ-12 Intelligence Operations as they relate to Cold war Psychological Warfare Plans. It is a one line request that says, "I would like a brief summary from you at your earliest convenience."
12. Unacknowledged CIA Top Secret/MJ 12 Counterintelligence carbon copy draft directive from Director of Central Intelligence to MJ 1-7 with eight tabs on government watermark onion skin paper (circa 1961).
13. Yuriy Ivanovich Norsenko was a Soviet KGB officer who defected in 1962 and Angleton had him detained and tortured for three years believing the warning given by another KGB defector Anatoliy Mikaylovich Golitsyn that Norsenko was ordered to defect and act as a disinformation plant to spread misleading information to the CIA regarding Soviet capabilities and intentions. Later CIA analysis suggested that it was Golitsyn who was the real mole planted within the CIA, not Norsenko. Angleton was convinced that Golitsyn was a bona fide defector and Golitsyn's information was used by Angleton and the CI mole hunt virtually destroyed the CIA;s covert operations for some time.
14. Top Secret CIA wire tap report dated 3 August, 1962 between Howard Rothberg and Marliyn Monroe with references to Project 40, MOON DUST, 5412, and MJ-12. The report was given to James Angleton and has his signature at the bottom right hand portion of the document establishing that CI was aware of Monroe's' desire to blackmail the Kennedy's with their indiscretions made to her while they were engaged in a sexual affair with her prior to August.
15. FBI file Number 105-40018-1, formerly classified Secret. CIA is copied on 19 August, 1955 FBI document from Mr. Dennis A. Flinn, Director, Office of Security, Department of State and copy sent to Director, Central Intelligence Agency with attention: Deputy Director, Plans, SECRET. Declassified on 11 November, 1978. Subject matter was redacted.
16. Crypt 33: The Saga of Marilyn Monroe-The Final Word by Adela Gregory and Milo Speriglio, Birch Lane Press, 1993.
17. This would be amazing since no one in government knew that James Angleton worked for the CIA much less his existence since there were few pictures of Angleton and very few within the agency knew who he was and what he did. It is also interesting, that until his appearance before the Church Committee in 1975 the public did not know about Angleton nor his counterintelligence position at the CIA. His identity was kept secret for twenty years.
18. National Security Action Memorandum No. 271, dated November 12, 1963 to The Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Subject: Cooperation with the USSR on Outer Space Matters. President Kennedy instructs James Webb as Administrator of NASA to "assume personally the initiative and central responsibility within the Government for the development of a program of substantive cooperation with the Soviet Union in the field of outer space, including the development of specific technical proposals. I assume that you will work closely with the Department of State and other agencies as appropriate." Kennedy had requested an interim report on NASA's progress in this adventure by December 15, 1963. Of course, after he was killed this program was never acted upon.
19. It should be pointed out here that James E. Webb had served on President Truman's Psychological Warfare Strategy Board and had assisted in revising NSC 10/2 for the Office of Policy Coordination (Covert Operations) in 1948 for the CIA and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for emergency plans in case of war. He also was the author of the Webb Staff Study that worked out cooperation between the military and the CIA concerning IAC intelligence sharing of foreign atomic research with the AEC which allowed the DCI prerogatives in the dissemination to key executive officials. He at one time had considered the DCI slot after Rear Admiral Hillenkoetter left office in 1950.
20. Top Secret Kennedy memorandum to the Director [of Counter Intelligence], Subject: Classification review of all UFO intelligence files affecting National Security, dated 12 November, 1963.
21 Ibid.
22 Ibid.
23 Ibid.
24 Ibid.
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