- Dr. Bruce Maccabee, MUFON's Maryland
Director writes: Regarding your comments on UFO propulsion. "The phenomenon
associated with the presence of a UFOs can be accounted for within the
following scientific parameters: The craft emit Electromagnetic radiation
measured isotropically that is in all directions of approximately one megawatt,
that is a million watts." Bruce states, "This number must be
considered a complete guess. The only real data we have (here I ignore
any possible data the "control group"-- should there be one --
might have; I refer only to "open literature data") is that,
at least in some cases, UFOs radiate visible light in the hundreds of KW
to MW range. However, the visible spectrum is only part of it. A photo
taken by Ed Walters in the presence of witnesses in Pensacola, Florida
on March 12, 1991, using infrared film indicates that there could be many
(ten? hundred?) more times in the infrared (see UFOs ARE REAL, HERE'S THE
PROOF, Avon, pg. 177). And there are numerous other wavelengths as well.
Hence "one megawatt" MIGHT be an underestimate in some cases.
- One the other hand, it might also be
an OVERESTIMATE in other cases. The wave length is of one-tenth to one
twenty- five millimeters at sixty to eighty cycles per second. Where does
this come from? That is, wavelength = 0.1 to 0.25 mm and at "60 to
80 Hz" I don't know where you get these numbers, but as stated this
makes no sense if the "60 to 80 Hz" refers to the electromagnetic
wave frequency (the "carrier" wave). Electromagnetic radiation
travels at the speed of about 300,000,000 m/sec (or 186,000 miles per second).
The relation ship between wavelength, w, frequency, f, and speed, s is:
wf = s. Hence a wavelength of 0.1 to 0.25 mm = 0.0001 to 0.00025 m corresponds
to f = 300,000,000 /(0.1 to 0,.25 ) = 3,000,000,000 to 1,200,000,000 cycles
per second or Hz (these numbers could be written in exponential notation
as 3E9 and 1.2E9 Hz or 3 Gigahertz and 1.2 Gigzhertz). These are known
as "microwave" frequencies. They are still 1/1000 the frequency
of infrared radiation. On the other hand, if the "60 to 80 Hz"
refers to frequency of radiation pulses (of 1.2 to 3 GHz basic "carrier"
frequency.. the pulses are a modulation of the carrier), then the only
parameter still needed to define the wave would be the pulse duration.
- There appears to be an undulation motion
and high frequency oscillations of constant amplitude. ??? Where is this
from? The Pulse width is ten to forty microseconds. The pulse is a brief
surge of voltage or pulsating. Pulsating what? Current? This statement
provides the pulse duration implying the 1.2 to 3 GHz carrier wave is "on-off"
modulated (like a square wave) with the carrier being turned on 60 to 80
times a second and each turn-on duration is 20-40 microseconds. Let's pick
80 Hz and 40 microseconds. The time between turn-ons is 1/80 = 0.0125 second
= 12,500 microseconds between turn-ons (I could wait that long to get turned
on!). The duty cycle is the ratio of the turned on time (40 microseconds...much
too short for me well, we got to find some humor in this stuff) to the
time between turn ons (12,500 microseconds) or 0.0032. If it radiates a
megawatt on average, then the peak power must be 1/0.0032 or 312 times
greater, In other words, 312 MW peak power pulses of 40 microseconds duration
each and occurring at a rate of 80 Hz will put out an average of 1 MW.
I should point out that 300 MW is an "awesome" peak power!
- On top of the craft is an exceptionally
high magnetic field which is about a million times more powerful than we
know how to produce on the Earth. The very few actual measurements or "chance
observations" we have do suggest huge magnetic fields, occasionally!
However, one may assume that such strong fields are not always present
because magnetic effects are not always detected. Also, whether a field
will be detected or depends upon whether this is a static field (constant
polarity and constant amplitude) or an alternating field (polarity switching
at some rate, as in an electromagnetic wave). A static field or slowly
varying field could produce some of the reported effects on mechanical
systems (noisy road sign, wobbling compass). There is also a slow ripple
effect of about ten per second. That ripple is what causes the spinning
of compasses? Maybe. Compasses could also spin if a "non-rippling"
magnetic field source were simply to move past a compass. Incidentally,
just how many such observations are there? (I already know about Fred Johnson,
prospector, June 24, 1947)
- Regarding the high power of the UFOs,
we have found that some fairly simple instruments may be useful for tracking
them. They are know to cause disturbances to compass readings. Rather than
watching the compass continuously it is possible to get an alarm from any
compass that is setting still and starts deviating. A simple optical- electrical
circuit of the "beam breaking" type can be used to measure the
deviation of a compass needle from its rest position. Requires a large
magnetic field from a close UFO to set it off. Scanning of the radio frequency
spectrum can sometimes pick up electrical disturbances caused by UFOs.
This can be done with rudimentary equipment such as radio receivers. Amateur
radio enthusiasts listen to a range of about 200 kHz through about 30 MHz.
Any actual detections confirmed by observation, or is this a guess?
- There are cases of radio disturbance
and TV disturbance...but this does not always happen (just as car-stopping
does not always happen). These would be the short wave listening hobbyists.
The ham radio operators would also have these, but could scan additional
bands of higher frequency. They could, if sufficient interest were generated,
build or modify equipment to scan frequencies in the microwave region.
Radar receivers often used by high speed drivers can also be used to measure
the microwave range energy that is sent out by many UFOs. Note: radar stations
use microwave radiation of various frequencies. they also have very sensitive
receivers and large antennas. Numerous radar detections have been recorded.
However, only rarely (I know of one case) is there a real likelihood that
radiation FROM the UFO (as opposed to radar radiation bounced off the UFO)
has been recorded. Hence I would conclude that the likelihood of detecting
a UFO by listening for microwave radiation is low at best. Editors Note:
Most of my data on UFO capabilities are taken from MUFON's former Director
of Research, Jim McCamble's data. Although the data is thought to be accurate,
there are numerous types and models of UFOs and each could produce various
types of ionization, and electromagnetic effects. I also suggest reading
UFOs Are Real by Dr. Maccabee an excellent book.