- Dear Readers,
- The article below describes the results
from my investigation into the current controversy over allegations that
contrails contain substances harmful to humans and the environment. My
investigation began two years ago and is continuing. It is the distillation
of many hours of research and is based on facts and logical analysis from
many sources, fully documented and sourced.
- I have made this effort in order to discover
the truth, which I define as the real state of things that agrees with
fact and reality. I understand that I will be attacked for my findings
by those whose paradigms are based on beliefs rather than facts. Such is
the fate of those who reveal truth which conflicts with other's beliefs.
Reality is often obscured when emotion, rather than facts, are the basis
for people's beliefs. I am willing to accept that many people will never
believe what I conclude to be the truth. I do not expect anyone to trust
my conclusions, but do expect all who value the truth to carefully examine
what I have to present. I stand willing to alter my conclusions should
new evidence become available.
- Jay Reynolds March 21, 1999
- Those Mysterious Lines in
By Jay Reynolds 3-23-99
- Over the past several years, many reports
of high altitude aircraft emitting unusual contrails <http://cimss.ssec.wisc.
have been made. These reports, appearing in print, on radio, and the Internet
have generated speculation about the origin, purpose, and effects of these
lines which appear to be more numerous over the years. This article will
examine the answers to these questions, suggest some explanations for what
is being seen, and describe what is not yet known about the subject.
- Contrail Formation
- The trail seen behind jet aircraft is
formed by condensation, much like our breath does when we exhale in cold
weather. The difference in contrail formation is that at the altitude that
contrails form, temperatures are very low and the condensation droplets
rapidly freeze into ice crystals. This occurs mostly in the upper troposphere
and the upper stratosphere (5-10 miles high). <http://www.al.noaa.gov/
- The essential conditions for contrail
formation <http://covis.atmos.uiuc.edu/guide/clouds/other.clouds/html/contrail.html are: 1. Hot jet exhaust
2. Ambient air close to saturation with water
3. Altitude sufficient to provide temperature for condensation to freeze,
typically below -38C.(1)
- Contrails have been observed since WWII,
<http://www.457thbombgroup.org/colpic.jpg and their persistence (see mision #24) <http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1393/andy2.html was noted by airmen since they made formation
- Contrail Persistence
- If a contrail is formed in air of low
humidity, the ice crystals will rapidly evaporate, but if the air is saturated
enough, the crystals will persist for some time. When winds aloft are calm
enough, the contrail will keep its shape, if the wind is strong enough,
it will spread <http: //hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov/AEAP/98jensen1pos.html
out and possibly form a cirrus type cloud.
- Under special conditions of higher humidity,
the ice crystals may grow <http://www.why.net/users/grhoden/oddities.htm from 10-20 microns in size up to 500 microns
or larger. At this size, their weight can cause them to fall up to 10,000
feet per hour.
These "fall streaks" <http:
//unr.edu/homepage/meyers/contrail3.html can fall <http://ww2010.atmos
.uiuc.edu/(Gl)/guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/hgh/crs.rxml for several kilometers from their point of origin, and in rare
cases even reach the ground.
(2) Normally, the ice crystals will reach an altitude where they evaporate.
This same phenomenon occurs in natural clouds, especially cirrus, and is
known as "mares tails", <http://unr. edu/homepage/daved/fallstreak.jpg
edu/~demark/471/Fallstreaks.html#fallstreak or virga. These cascading flows of ice crystals, followed by
spreading sheets of cirrus clouds so often foretold the approach of a storm
com/sailingtip108.html that an
ancient sailor's rhyme <http://www.
starpathdemos.com/vendemos/weather/w_art-1b.htm reads: "Mackerel skies and mare's tails make tall ships
set low sails."
- Contrail Effects
- Since contrails are composed of water
in the form of ice crystals, and they often eventually form cirrus type
clouds, their effects are the same as natural clouds. Clouds influence
our weather both by blocking the suns rays and by absorbing and radiating
back heat emitted by the earth itself. Since air traffic is increasing
as much as 5% per year, and the traffic is sometimes concentrated into
corridors, the local and worldwide climate may be affected.
- Over the last decade, NASA has been conducting
the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project <http://hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov/AEAP/ concerned with the possible effects of jet aircraft
effluent in the stratosphere, primarily on ozone chemistry, and more recently
in the troposphere, including climatic effects of jet aircraft contrails.
To address the latter, the Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects
Special Study (SUCCESS) field experiment was conducted in 1996 using several
aircraft and satellites.
- Effects of jet fuel mixtures on effluent
composition and contrail formation were examined for normal jet aircraft
representative of the commercial fleet. Effects of contrails as well as
ice formation processes in regular cirrus clouds were also investigated.These
projects use normal aircraft and fuels to simulate air traffic and measure
their effect.(3) <http://www.larc.nasa.gov/ The military is probably interested in lessening
contrail formation for stealth purposes.
- The Controversies
- Since 1996, reports have been made about
contrails which allege one or more of the following:
- 1. Military aircraft are "spraying"
biological or chemical agents via contrails and are flying formations which
sometimes form odd shapes.
- 2. A new military jet fuel, JP-8 with
additive +100, contains Ethylene dibromide, and contrails formed by this
fuel are causing various illnesses.
- 3. Aircraft are spreading a cobweb type
material which causes various illnesses.
- 4. Military aircraft are conducting weather
control experiments, possibly in concert with the HAARP project.
- These reports are characterized by little
documented or confirmable information, and no material analysis or medical
reports have been published. Without documented and confirmable information,
these reports can only be considered rumor and speculation. Some analysis
of these reports can be made with facts that are known about contrails,
aircraft, materials, and physics.
- "Spraying" Via Contrails
- As noted before, it is not necessary
to have any biological or chemical agents to cause contrails, they are
composed of ice crystals, and thus the existence of contrails can neither
support or disprove the delivery of such a substance. The purpose of biological
or chemical warfare is to disseminate an agent to the land surface, and
would be ineffective at the altitude where contrail formation takes place.
- In many cases, an agent released at these
altitudes, which are typically five miles up or higher, would not be delivered
to the ground for hundreds or thousands of miles.(4)
- It is not necessary, and would be a general
waste of time, to apply a biological agent over the vast miles of sparsely
inhabited countryside of this nation. Some reports have come from the east
coast, where high altitude spraying of a biological or chemical agent would
simply drift out over the Atlantic ocean and affect no one. Common sense
and logic would suggest that such an attack would take place at night,
and over a populated area, or be carried out at ground level with a contagious
- Satellite observations have shown that
a cluster of contrails in New Mexico turned into a cloud covering more
than 13,000 square miles. The cloud lasted 14 hours and drifted all the
way to southern Georgia.(5) <http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/
- Many agents would degrade or evaporate
in the time it would take to fall from such an altitude. Many biological
and chemical agents rapidly degrade in sunlight. The wide dispersion of
the agent would decrease it's effectiveness due to loss of concentration.
- "Formation" Flying
- Military aircraft do fly in formation
during training and refueling, commercial aircraft do not. Commercial aircraft
do fly in regular corridors between destinations, and do therefore sometimes
cause parallel contrails. They also could appear to fly in formation while
actually being separated by altitude, this not being apparent from the
ground. It would be extremely difficult to identify markings or color of
aircraft at these altitudes, and many commercial planes are of the same
body as military aircraft(DC-10 = KC-10). Since the atmosphere is not consistent
at different altitudes or in different locations, contrails can change,
start, and stop as an aircraft moves through different air parcels. The
random crossing of aircraft in parallel or in different directions, and
the changes in contrails during flight can create X's, W's and even figure
8 "markings" in the sky.(6) <http://www-pm.larc.nasa .gov/success/eightball.html
- JP-8+100 and Ethylene dibromide
- The jet fuel additive +100 was developed
at the Dayton University Research Institute <http://www.udayton.edu/news/nr/050598.html to improve combustion and reduce maintenance
of military aircraft. Dr. Steve Zabarnick, Ph.D., one of the developers,
- "JP-8+100 is composed of three components:
an antioxidant, a metal deactivator, and a dispersant. The antioxidant
and metal deactivator species are common components that have been present
in jet fuels, gasolines, and other petroleum products for many decades.
The dispersant is a proprietary formulation of BetzDearborn HPG Inc. Ethylene
dibromide is NOT a component of this package and, as far as I know, has
never been used in jet fuel."(7)
- Ethylene dibromide(EDB) was for several
decades used in leaded gasoline to scavenge and prevent lead deposition
in automotive engines. It was also used to fumigate soils and grain during
storage. It's use in the US was suspended in 1983. EDB is considered highly
toxic, carcinogenic, and can affect reproduction. The half-life of EDB
is less than 48 hours in rats, chicks, mice, and guinea pigs. EDB has a
half-life of 1 day in river water, and about five days in lake water. EDB
decomposes when heated or in sunlight and cooking dramatically reduces
EDB levels in foods. Plants are unable to take EDB up from soil, thus accumulation
is not likely.(8) <http://ace.orst.edu/cgi-bin/mfs/01/pips/edb.htm?8#mfs Since EDB rapidly vaporizes into a gas, it's
effectiveness as a chemical agent dispersed at high altitude would be limited.
Since it degrades through oxidation reaction when heated, and jet combustion
temperatures exceed 1000F, it's use as a chemical agent delivered in this
way would be worthless.
- "Cobweb" Sightings
- A lightweight material resembling cobwebs
or accumulations of lightweight stranded material released at five miles
altitude would tend to drift long distances and would not be an effective
means of dispersing a chemical or biological weapon with any accuracy.
An observer sighting such material at ground level could not relate it's
release with an aircraft release, which would have occurred at a long distance
and time away.
- Cobwebs do fall from the sky at times,
and are the result of natural causes. It is well known that small immature
spiders use their silk to provide transportation in migration. These spiders
emerge, sometimes in the hundreds, from each egg sack. "The phenomenon
is widespread in the order Aranea and is thought to be the primary means
by which spiders disperse over long distances."(9) <http://vassun.vassar.
- A recent sighting of a "cobweb-like"
material was described by Tommy L. Farmer of Jonesborough, TN. The material,
which was collected, but not analyzed, was described as "six to eight
inches in length and about the diameter of a pencil". It was seen
falling to the ground ten minutes after passage nearby of five aircraft
emitting contrails at an altitude Farmer estimated at 10-15,000 feet.
- In an experiment I conducted, a piece
of fiberglass insulation was formed into the shape and size described by
Farmer. This material was dropped from several elevated positions and was
observed to fall at 2 ft/sec. At this rate of fall, the material would
require 5000 seconds(83 minutes) to reach the ground. Thus, Farmer's material
would not have been seen at ground level for well over an hour, not within
ten minutes, as claimed.
- This demonstrates the problem that would
be encountered in delivering lightweight substances from high altitudes.
The slow descent is further complicated by wind dispersion(scattering),
and horizontal displacement (blowing sideways), which tends to carry light
material many miles from the point of release and spread it widely. Weather
- It is known that the military is interested
in weather modification for defensive and offensive purposes. A program
to seed clouds with carbon black(soot) in order to increase cirrus and
dissipate fog is scheduled for completion by 2004, $2.5 million is budgeted
for this in 1999.(10) <http://www.tecom.army.mil/tts/1997/proceed/abarnes/
- Commercial cloud seeding operations are
commonplace, especially in the southwest and plains states. The High Altitude
Auroral Research Project (HAARP) is possibly intended for weather modification,
but is thought to not be in full operation at this time. Since the HAARP
project is designed to affect the ionosphere which is 75 km high, and far
above the earth's atmosphere, it is not reasonable that aircraft flying
within the atmosphere could aid that project. The level of experimentation
in weather modification by the military is unknown, and has not been connected
with contrails by any proof whatsoever.
- Ironically, the relationship between
changes in the weather and contrail formation is opposite to the allegations
that contrails are formed to influence the weather. Actually, weather conditions
favorable for contrail formation are exactly the same as those preceding
a storm front , and are the same conditions that cause natural clouds to
form. Weather conditions do cause contrails, but contrails do not cause
- Origin of the Controversy
- The earliest record of discussion relative
to contrails is an e-mail message to an Internet discussion group, which
reads in part:
- From: Richard Finke Sent: Wednesday,
September 17, 1997 4:18 PM To: BIOWAR-L@mail.sonic.net Subject: [BIOWAR]
LINES IN THE SKIES IDENTIFIED GENOCIDE ON A WHOLESALE LOT LINES IN THE
SKY ARE IDENTIFIED!! SAMPLES Are ANALYZED!!!
- The lab director of Aquatech Environmental
(a.k.a. AquaTel), Marion, OH, ph., (707) 8872228, using samples taken from
JP8 contaminated fields of Maryland and Pennsylvania, reported today (9/18/97)
that ethylene dibromide, otherwise known as EDB, has been the contaminate
in the fuel and water samples taken of submitted by farmers, pilots and
tanker drivers. EDB is one of the most tightly controlled EPA substances
and was banned in 1983 due to its carcinogenieity. EDB is a pesticide that
apparently is being placed in the jet fuel and dispersed on a daily, almost
nonstop basis in our skies. The lines filling our skies are not contrails.
The lines are dispersed and may linger for hours, slowly filtering down
to unsuspecting pests, and I guess we're the PESTS.
- This message is not an analysis, and
no analysis is available from Richard Finke, <http://greenapple.com/~ricfinke/ who has admitted that both the lab name and telephone
number are false. This false report has been widely circulated by e-mail
and still appears on several websites which apparently did not verify its
- On 1/25/99, talk radio host Art Bell
interviewed William Thomas <http://www.islandnet.com/~wilco/will.htm who has written two articles for Lycos Environment
News Service <http://ens.lycos.com/ that describe his hypothesis that contrails contain
either a poisonous substance, a bacterial or viral agent, or a substance
being used for weather modification. Most of the people interviewed in
his article did not know that the Finke report was false, and Thomas admitted
on Art Bell's <http://harvest-trust.org/artbsbell.htm program that no analysis of any material or medical
condition is known to exist.
- On 1/30/99 Thomas issued an alert which
said: "Something huge is going on. In many regions, I can confirm
that hospital emergency rooms are filled to overflowing with a sudden epidemic
of acute respiratory patients suffering from something doctors cannot diagnose-
and that is NOT the flu.".... " What is definitely known and
verifiable is that thousands, quite possibly tens of thousands of Americans
- and perhaps more - are becoming ill enough to seek medical attention
after these fly-overs, which are continuing at a stepped-up pace as I write."
........ "This is a national emergency."
- On 2/10/99 William Thomas issued another
alert which read: To: John Hammell From: William Thomas Subject: TAKE COVER
- John, Tell everyone to STAY INDOORS when
contrails are being woven overhead. I've got a BBC photo of a freezer semi
filled with dead bodies in England all from sudden respiratory ailments.
We're talking (according to the BBC) 6,000 deaths from respiratory failure
in two weeks.
- People are VERY SICK here. And spraying
continues after heavy spraying last Friday over Asheville, Knoxville, Dallas
and other US centers. I have this morning received reports of "many
deaths" from a "cough that never leaves" in Louisiana.
- This is big. This is real. I have positively
verified that Emergency Rooms are overflowing with acute respiratory cases
from coast to coast. Doctors are telling the New York Times that this is
NOT the flu. People are dying they say far more quickly and at rates far
- The only lab test I have shows JP8 present
in soil samples after spraying. The ethylene dibromide in JP8 is banned
by the EPA as a known carcinogen and an extremely toxic substance that
attacks the respiratory system at very low doses of exposure...................
- This is a MAXIMUM RED ALERT for everyone
on your list, John. TAKE COVER! Stay indoors during spraying. This is NOT
"woowoo". This is NOT a drill. Check my website for updates:
http://www.islandnet.com/~wilco/index.html Good luck to all of us, William Thomas
- The months of January and February are
typically the peak of cold and flu season. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/weekly.htm By publication time for this article, it will
be apparent if indeed a "national emergency" has taken place.
- Possible Motives
- Richard Finke, who distributed the false
EDB "analysis", edited and condensed the book by Larry Wayne
Harris entitled, "Bacteriological Warfare: A Major Threat to North
America". In 1998, Harris pled guilty to wire fraud for fraudulently
obtaining vials of bubonic plague. Finke also wrote an article entitled
"Update On Anthrax 'Cures', Exposure, Vaccine Effectivity", <http://www.sightings.com/health/antvacccures.htm by Ric Finke, LWH Consulting, which he describes
as "a defensive biowar and disaster recovery consulting firm".
In starting the EDB spray rumor, Finke may have been seeking to drum up
business for LWH Consulting.
- William Thomas sells the USANA brand
of vitamin and mineral supplements for sale on his website. Thomas writes:
- "You don't have to be a Gulf War
veteran to be suffering daily effects from Chemical Warfare (CW) exposure.
As a frequent writer on environment and health, while researching a major
article on chemical sensitivities ,I learned that Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
can be triggered by massive repeated low level exposure to oil and other
chemical releases. Once you've become "sensitized" to certain
chemical or petroleum products such as benzene, chances are you will also
be sensitive to things like pesticides, perfumes or the formaldehyde found
in abundance in almost every office and home. Anyone committed to recovering,
protecting and improving their health should read on." Thomas goes
on to describe how through use his products:
- "Two years later, I am virtually
immune to the flu's and viruses that constantly lay many of my friends
low." <http://www.islandnet. com/~wilco/vitamin.htm
- A link at Thomas' website advertises
information on how to order medicines from overseas without a prescription:
- "MEDICINES WITHOUT PRESCRIPTION"
<http://www.islandnet.com/~wilco/usana.htm links to: <http://members.tripod.com/survivalmeds/survivalmeds.html
- Faced with criticism of his hypothesis,
Thomas recently has had to rally his flagging followers by saying, "Until
the lab results are in, lack of "proof" should not obscure an
overwhelming preponderance of pattern and precedent."
- Other websites that offer products which
can protect against contrails are: <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/4809/just-do-it.html
- One contrail website says: "I am
sure the drug companies are selling a lot of drugs, could they be behind
this??? ". The same site then goes on to say: ""Stock up
on vitamins LEF 800841LIFE tell them you were referred by IAHF."<http://azwest.net/USER/SLIM/
- Contrail formation mechanisms are ordinary
and contrails themselves are increasing in number as a result of increased
air traffic. Reports of persistent contrails are within what is known to
be naturally possible. Contrail studies are underway which will increase
our knowledge of their causes, frequency, and effects. High altitude contrails
are not consistent with effective dispersal of chemical or biological agents.
No known toxic or harmful components have been proven to be in JP-8+100
fuel. Ethylene dibromide is not a viable chemical warfare agent when delivered
through jet engine combustion. No medical reports, material analysis, or
documentable and confirmable evidence has been presented which supports
the hypothesis that chemical or biological agents are currently being delivered
or can be associated with jet contrails. There is a threat to Americans
from germ and chemical warfare, and vigilance should be maintained. Speculation
and rumor without factual and specific information can only dull that vigilance.
Those with factual information have a moral obligation to publicize those
facts, but those who "cry wolf" are not acting in the best interest
of this nation.
- 1. Online Guide to Meteorology, Department
of Atmospheric Sciences
- at the University of Illinois UrbanaChampaign,
Cloud Catalog, at:
- 2. Personal communication with David
Starr, Mission Scientist,
- SUCCESS, NASA, GSFC, 1997
- 3. NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Research
- Atmospheric Sciences Division NASA Langley
- 4. Personal communication with Patrick
Minnis, Senior Research
- Scientist, Radiation Sciences Branch,
- Division, NASA Langley Research Center,
- 5. National Public Radio, Morning Edition,
Aviation Threat to the
- Environment, June 10, 1998, Patrick Minnis
- < http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/
- 6. Minnis, P.;Young, D.F.; Nguyen, L.;Garber,
D.P.; Smith, W.L.,Jr.;
- and Palikonda, R.: Transformation of
Contrails Into Cirrus During
- SUCCESS, Geophysical Research Letters.,25,
April 15, 1998,
- pp. 1157-1160 http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/
- 7. Personal communication with Steve
Zabarnick, Ph.D., Research
- Chemist, Aerospace Mechanics Division,
University of Dayton
- Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1/13/99
- 8. EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network,
- Profiles, Oregon State University, Ethylene
- dibromomethane, rev. 1996, http://ace.orst.edu:80/info/extoxnet/
- 9. Suter, R.B. (1991). Ballooning in
spiders: results of wind
- tunnel experiments. Ethology, Ecology,
and Evolution 3: 13-25
- 10. U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command
(TECOM) Directorate for
- Technical Mission, Test Technology Symposium
'97, March 1820,
- 1997, Weather Modification, Dr. Arnold
- The author, Jay Reynolds, is an engineer
who has extensive experience in marine propulsion and gas turbine engines.
He is an independent journalist unaffiliated with any government or corporate
- Reprinted with permission from the author.